Open Access Original Research Article

Iron Solubilization Activity of Mugineic Acid and Secretion of Mugineic Acid Family of Phytosiderophores by Barley and Puccinellia chinampoensis Ohwi under Sodic Conditions

T. Yoshida, H. Kudo, L. Zhao, H. B. Wang, A. Sato, A. K. Xu, M. Q. Zhao, X. M. Guo, S. Kawai

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 297-311
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/13640

In order to clarify contribution of the mugineic acid family of phytosiderophores (MAs) to the iron (Fe) nutrient utilization for the survival of grasses grown in sodic soils, the secretion of MAs from the roots of Puccinellia chinampoensis Ohwi (P. chinampoensis), one of the sodic tolerant grasses, was investigated compared with barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Minorimugi) as a control plant in Fe-depleted hydroponical cultures. It was clarified that the amount of released MAs of barley which have high MAs secretion ability in their roots, was reduced under sodic conditions. On the other hand, the amount of MAs released by P. chinampoensis was increased under the sodic conditions compared with pH 6.5 conditions. It was also shown that MAs release activity of P. chinampoensis was subjected to lesser repression by Na2CO3/NaHCO3 than that of barley. Subsequently, the activity of MA, one of the MAs, to solubilize Fe3+ from gelled Fe3+ in various ion compositions was examined. The results showed that Fe3+ solubilization activity of MAs was maintained stable in the pH range between 8 and 10 and was much repressed by CO32−/HCO3 under pH 10 condition. Because of the repression of Fe3+ solubilization activity of MA by CO32−/HCO3, it was considered that higher ability to secrete MAs of P. chinampoensis under sodic conditions will give advantage to the plant for survival in sodic soils. Thus, P. chinampoensis is considered to be adapted to sodic conditions. Extensive examination about the behavior of MAs in the rhizosphere of sodic soils and physiological significance of MAs in the sodic tolerant grasses are required in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Wastewater Irrigation on Quality of Urban Soils in Kano, Nigeria

U. M. Dawaki, A. U. Dikko, S. S. Noma, U. Aliyu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 312-325
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/13472

This study used the soil management assessment framework (SMAF) to evaluate the quality of wastewater irrigated soils in urban Kano, Nigeria in the dry season of 2012. Three sites each on Challawa and Jakara rivers receiving industrial and domestic wastewaters respectively were sampled for water and soil; and compared with three sites at Watari river that receives no wastewater thereby serving as control. Heavy metals pollution and fertility indices were used to establish minimum data set (MDS) because of their effects on yield and safety of crops. Soil fertility and pollution indices used as indicators included pH, EC, bulk density (BD), organic carbon, NPK, total heavy, exchangeable and soluble heavy metals. Physical and chemical properties of irrigation waters were also evaluated and correlated with soil properties. There were variations from low to medium or medium to high for many of the parameters and P was excessively high at Jakara (213.52g/kg). The increased tendency for the wastewater irrigated soils to be saline was also observed due to higher Na content (3.20 and 1.11cmol/kg at Jakara and Challawa respectively). The Jakara sites were lower in BD (1.30) thereby making them easier to till especially against the control (1.60). There was a downstream decreasing pattern in the concentrations of all heavy metals across Challawa and Jakara sites and a reverse phenomenon at the control. The PO43-, NO3-, HCO3-, B and Cl- as well the heavy metals contents in irrigation waters across all sites have all exceeded the increased hazard limit with quality generally in the order Watari>Challawa>Jakara. Many water properties were significantly and positively correlated with soil properties. All the quality indexes were within same marginal range (0.53, 0.498 and 0.485 for Challawa, Jakara and Watari respectively) due to the counterbalancing effect of fertility and pollution indices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Active Soil Organic Carbon Fractions and Aggregate Stability Effected by Minimum Tillage and Crop Rotations on a Marginal Dryland Soil in Punjab, Pakistan

Asma Hassan, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz, Rattan Lal, Safdar Ali, Muhammad Ansar, Qaiser Hussain, Muhammad Sharif Bloch

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 326-337
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/14328

Conservation Agriculture (CA) is an important technique for enhancing soil organic carbon (SOC) content in the surface layer and improving structural stability. CA is not widely practiced in dryland soils of developing countries where marginal farming practices are extensively used. Therefore, a field study was conducted in dryland region of Punjab, Pakistan to compare minimum tillage and intensified cropping systems effects on active SOC fractions and aggregate stability. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design having moldboard plough (MP) and minimum tillage (MT) as main plots, and crop sequences as sub-plots. The latter comprised of fallow–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), (FW, control), mungbean (Vigna radiate L.) –wheat (MW), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)–wheat (SW), green manure–wheat (GW) and mungbean-chickpea (MC) (Cicer arietinum L.). Tillage systems had more pronounced effects than cropping sequences on microbial biomass carbon (MBC), potentially minerlizeable carbon (PMC) and particulate organic carbon (POC). The PMC in second year was significantly more in the soil under MT than that under MP especially with SW, GW and FW sequences (448, 442 and 419 µg g-1 soil day-1, respectively). High MBC was also recorded under MT mainly with MW (361 µg g-1). POC was the highest under MP with MC sequence and was 6.41% more than that under MT. More water stable aggregate (WSA) was recorded in soil under MT plots sown with MC and GW (48.62% and 46.25%, respectively) than that under MP. The results indicate that MT with legume based-cropping sequences reduced breakdown of soil aggregates than the current MP and fallow-based systems in Pothwar, Pakistan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Cationic Indices with Clay Dispersion Degree of Two Soils from Brazil Fertilized with Chicken Manure

Thadeu Rodrigues de Melo, Wesley Machado, João Tavares Filho

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 338-351
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/12026

Aims: The aim of this work was to evaluate ESR (Exchangeable Sodium Ratio), MCARex (Monovalent Cation Adsorption Ratio) and CROSSex (Cation Ratio of Soil Structural Stability) as indices, using exchangeable cations in calculations, to predict clay dispersion behavior in two soils with chicken manure application.
Study Design: Pots were completely randomized, with 10 replications per treatment.
Place and Duration of Study: A Red Latosol and a Red-Yellow Ultisol from Brazil were sampled. Pots were conducted in a greenhouse in Londrina - Paraná during 90 days.
Methodology: Chicken manure doses (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32Mg ha-1) were applied and mixed with the soils. After 90 days of irrigation, samples were analyzed for Ca2+ex, Mg2+ex, K+ex, Na+ex, organic matter, pHwater, pHKCl (1N) and water dispersible clay. Clay dispersion degree, point of zero charge, ΔpH, ESR, MCAREX and CROSSEX were calculated. ANOVA was calculated and the better-fit regression equation was shown.
Results: No accurate relationship was found between ESR, MCAREX or CROSSEX with clay dispersion degree.
Conclusion: ESP, MCARex and CROSSex did not have enough correlation with clay dispersion of studied soils. More information about soil net charge, organic matter, Fe and Al (hydr) oxides are needed to a high scope index of soil structural stability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Two Herbicides (Zoom and Sencorate) on Physiological Parameters (Chlorophyll, Proline and Total Protein), Enzymatic (CAT and APX) and Non-Enzymatic Biomarkers (MDA and GSH) of the Species Orthotrichum affine

Khouloud Boukehili, Fadila Khaldi, Meriem Kharrachi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 352-365
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/13291

The bryophytes of the genus Orthotrichum (O. affine) are treated in hydroponic conditions with 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/L of two herbicides (Zoom and Sencorate) for 3, 7 and 14 days. The signs of toxicity are manifested by disturbances in chlorophyll contents (a, b and a + b), accompanied by an increase of the content of proline (3 and 7 days) and total protein. Our results also showed a decrease in the GSH level with an increased rate of proline. Regarding the CAT and APX, we showed low activity of these enzymes seems insignificant for the majority of time reflecting the high tolerance of this species to pollutants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioremediation of Three Brazilian Soils Contaminated with Used Lubricating Oil

Adebayo Jonathan Adeyemo, Jaime Wilson Vargas de Mello, Samuel Ohikhena Agele

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 366-376
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/11742

Objectives: This study aimed at bioremediation potentials of organic pollutants, in particular, used lubricating oil contaminated soils, using commercial microbial nutrient. Other objectives were the evaluation of kinetic model to determine the rate of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil and to subsequently determine the half-life of the oil degradation.
Materials and Methods: The patterns of biodegradation of used motor oil were studied for a period of 90 days under laboratory condition. The model soil (300 g) was contaminated with 1.5 % (w/w) of used motor oil at room temperature in the laboratory using microcosm of 1 L. The microcosm was used to simulate the comparative effect of used lubricating oil addition and bioremediation using a commercially available hydrocarbon degrading microbial consortium - Amnite P1300 as bioaugmentation (T1), nutrients amendments - (NH4)2SO4 and K2HPO4 (NPK) as biostimulation (T2), unammended soil - natural attenuation as (T3) and the control soil treated with sodium azide (NaN3) as (T4).
Results: Treatment effects were evaluated on microbial community using three soil types (S1, S2 and S3). Hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterial counts were obtained in the amended soils under treatments T1, T2, and T3 ranging from 3.47 × 106 to 3.27×108 cfu/g compared to T4 throughout the 90 days of study. Soils amended with Amnite p1300 showed highest reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbon with net loss of 36.17 % throughout the period of experiment compared to other treatments. The changes (decline and recovery) in population of microbial community are a useful and sensitive way of monitoring the impact and recovery of used motor oil-contaminated soils.
Conclusion: The results suggest that different soils have different inherent microbial potential to degrade hydrocarbons of soils contaminated with used lubricating oil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in Morphological, Physiological and Chemical Characteristics of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genotypes Induced by Salt Stress

Parveen ., Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haq, Sajjad Raza, Ghulam Hassan Abbasi, Ahmad Ali, Javaid Akhtar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 377-388
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/12086

Investigations on characterization of various sunflower genotypes regarding their morphological, physiological, chemical parameters, seed oil and its quality through studying fatty acid composition under different salinity levels was carried out at Saline Agriculture Research Centre, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Seeds of four sunflower genotypes (FH-385, FH-352, FH-106 and FH-259) were sown in lysimeter and three salinity levels (control, 8dS m-1 and 16dSm-1) were developed by using NaCl salt. Results revealed that salinity stress drastically affected the morphological, physiological, chemical parameters and quantity and quality of seed oil in all sunflower genotypes under all levels of salinity stress. Studies further exhibited that sunflower genotype FH- 385 was found leading salt resistant genotype by showing less reduction in all plant growth parameters i.e. plant height (25%), shoot fresh weight (30%), SPAD value (13%), relative water content (17%),flower weight (32%), flower diameter (14%), photosynthetic rate (8%), transpiration rate (28%), internal CO2concentration (24%), stomatal conductance (32%), seed oil (35%), linoleic acid (32%) and K+/Na+ ratio (73%) relative to percent of their control at high level of salinity (16dSm-1). The results of our experiment clearly indicated that the sunflower genotypes FH-385 was the most salt tolerant followed by FH-352 and FH-259 while FH-106 was the most salt sensitive genotype.

Open Access Original Research Article

Status and Variability of Soil Micronutrients with Landforms in the Plague Focus of Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania

Joel L. Meliyo, Boniface H. J. Massawe, Leon Brabers, Balthazar M. Msanya, Didas N. Kimaro, Loth S. Mulungu, Nganga I. Kihupi, Jozef A. Deckersbel, Hubert Gulinck, Herwig Leirs

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 389-403
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/13717

A study was carried out in Western Usambara, Tanzania to assess the status of soil micronutrients across three geomorphic units viz., plain, escarpment and plateau in order to provide essential information for on-going studies on plague epidemiology. Nineteen soil profiles were opened, described and 54 samples collected for laboratory analysis. Standard methods were employed to analyse soil physical and chemical properties. Micronutrients Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were extracted by DTPA and quantities estimated spectrophotometrically. Spatial distribution of micronutrients along the geomorphic units and within pedons was studied using descriptive statistics, correlation, ANOVA and means separation was done by Tukey’s test at 95 % confidence interval in Minitab 14 software. Relationships between small mammal and flea abundance and micronutrients were established by regression analysis using R-software. Results showed that DTPA extractable Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were variable. Fe ranged from 2.13 to 399.4 mg/kg soil, with a mean of 65.3 mg Fe/kg soil across the geomorphic units. Mn ranged from 0.59 to 266.28 mg Mn/kg soil while Cu ranged from 0.25 to 8.19 mg/kg soil with a mean of 2.98 mg Cu/kg soil. Results show that Zn ranged from 0.08 to 19.6 mg Zn/kg soil, with a mean of 1.16 mg Zn/kg soil. Generally, micronutrients declined with soil depth. The micronutrient levels were high in the geomorphic units with the trend: plateau > escarpment > plain. Iron was found to significantly P<.01 and P<.05 influence plague hosts and vectors. The study concludes that micronutrients vary with soils and geomorphic units. Iron had positive influence on plague hosts and vectors. Further research on the relationships between micronutrients, and plague hosts and vectors in different plague foci in the country is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimum Ratio of Coriander Intercropping with Onion

A. H. M. M. R. Talukder, J. Rahman, M. M. Rahman, M. Biswas, M. Asaduzzaman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 404-410
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/12600

Aims: The main aim of this study was to find out the optimum plant density of onion for intercropping with coriander for higher productivity and economic return.
Study Design: The experiment was arranged following randomized complete block design with three replications.
Place and Duration of Study: Agronomy Experimental Field of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Jamalpur, Bangladesh during the cropping season rabi 2011-2012 and 2012-2013.
Methodology: We broadcast coriander seeds in different ratio with onion. The seeding ratio includes sole onion i.e., 100% onion seed broadcasting, 100% onion + 50% coriander, 100% onion + 40% coriander, 100% onion + 30% coriander and 100% onion + 20% coriander. Onion var. BARI Peaj-1 and Coriander var. BARI Dhania-1 were used in the present experiment. Randomly five onion plants were recorded earlier to collect the yield and yield contributing characteristics. Yield attributes of coriander were also recorded from five plants selected randomly earlier and yield data was recorded considering the whole plot in case of both crops. Onion equivalent yield (OEY) was calculated considering the local market price during the harvesting time.
Results: During the both year's maximum onion equivalent yield 13.10 t ha-1 and 12.83 t ha-1 was obtained from the treatment of 100% onion + 20% coriander followed by 100% onion + 30% coriander intercropping system during the first and second year, respectively. Onion (100%) + 20% coriander gave the highest benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 5.01 and 4.92 in first and second year, respectively followed by sole onion 4.86 and 4.59, respectively while 100% onion + 50% coriander gave the lowest BCR of 3.50 and 3.37 during the first and second year, respectively.
Conclusion: From two years result it may be concluded that 100% onion + 20% coriander and 100% onion + 30% coriander seeding ration may be extended in the char land (river flood plain) areas of this region.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Trellising Methods on Determinate Tomato Varieties' Yield in Zimbabwe

Chandiposha Misheck, Mudani Simbarashe, Gwazane Munyaradzi, Kudzipanga N. Ngonidzashe

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 411-416
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/13070

Aims: To determine the effect of trellising methods of determinate tomato varieties on fruit diameter, number of fruits per plant, marketable and total yields.
Study Design: A 3 x 4 factorial experiment in Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications was used
Place and Duration of Study: Mutoko district in Zimbabwe between May and October 2013

Methodology: Two factors were studied the trellising method (including staking and weave, single pole staking, caging and the ground culture as control) and the tomato varieties (Roma, Floridade and Rio Grande). The factors were studied concerning their effect on yield amount.
Results: Significant difference was found (P≤0.05) due to the trellising method, whereas the caging caused the highest results (number of fruits per plant, marketable and total yield amount). Additionally, species variability plays important role in determination of yield quality as found for Roma one as compare to the other ones Not only the trellising method alone is affecting the yield, but the suitability of the species to the trellising method, and the one which has the highest results was Roma when compared to Floridade and Rio Grande.
Conclusion: The caging method resulted in an increase in yield. Despite any trellising method used, trailing increases the amount of marketable tomatoes. These results, however, need further studies to validate reliability.