Open Access Short Research Article

Iron Oxides Minerals in Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials

Ayaz Mehmood, Mohammad Saleem Akhtar, Yojun Deng, Joe B Dixon, Muhammad Imran, Shah Rukh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 110-116
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/14384

The knowledge on soil iron oxides morphology and crystallization is important for the management of nutrients especially phosphorus. The objectives of the study were to determine the iron oxides minerals in Pothwar uplands. In the study one soil from each parent material (loess, alluvium, sandstone and shale) was selected. Selected clay samples suspensions were observed under transmission electron microscope. Ferrihydrite was common iron oxide mineral observed in all selected parent material soils at different level of crystallinity. Ferrihydrite was observed in scattered granules and also as aggregates or clusters. Crystalline iron oxides hematite and lepidocrocite was observed only in shale derived Murree soil. Mica and Rutile were the inorganic crystalline material on which masses of ferrihydrite was scattered.  Energy dispersive spectra of scattered ferrihydrite masses   show it has more   phosphorus than   lepidocrocite and   hematite.

The study concludes that ferrihydrite was the major iron oxides mineral in all selected parent material soils while shale derived soil also had lithogenic hematite and lepidocrocite.

Open Access Short communication

LINN Simulation Model for Health/Environmental Impacts Associated with the Presence of Dangerous Minerals in Agricultural Soils

W. Meserecordias Lema, N. Jasper Ijumba, N. Karoli Njau, A. Patrick Ndakidemi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 117-126
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/13970

In this study, a brief history related to mathematical modeling of minerals uptake by plants from soil is presented. Thereafter, a simulation model called LINN is developed that will have the main task of providing a link between the results predicted by the existing mathematical models and/or measured values (from real experiments) and health impacts as stipulated elsewhere in the literatures. LINN model is built on MS-OFFICE (Access). Six metallic trace elements (MTE) that are known to be dangerous to the ecosystem (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb) can be evaluated by LINN. This program provides general descriptions on impacts that may happen to plants and/or human beings when these elements are present in the soils at levels exceeding the standard limits set by the regulatory organs i.e. World Health Organization (WHO). However, LINN does not differentiate impacts related to MTEs present at levels just above the standard limits from levels extremely higher than the standard limits.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Soil use and Management on the Chemical Properties of an Ultisol

Carolina dos Santos Batista Bonini, Alfredo Bonini Neto

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 74-81
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/13728

The use of vegetation cover to protect the soil and increase the soil organic matter content available to plants is a good practice to minimize loss of soil quality. The effect of soil management practices on the objective of this study was to evaluate the soil quality under different types of management. A completely randomised experimental design was used with three treatments as; area of natural vegetation; Area of perennial crop cultivation and degraded pasture area; with five replications. Chemical soil properties evaluated were: Phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium contents by extraction with ion exchanger resin. The content of organic matter was determined by the colorimetric method and the pH, in calcium chloride, as well as the acidity potential of the pH 7.0. The sums of bases, cation exchange capacity and base saturation were calculated. Under the treatment of natural vegetation the soil depths: 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40m. Data were analyzed statistically using the Tukey test at 5% for comparison of means. In the treatment, there was an accumulation of exchangeable bases, organic matter and phosphorus, as well as reducing potential acidity. The results show that soil use in spite of its management interferes with the chemical quality of the soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antagonistic Compatibility of Streptomyces griseorubens, Gliocladium virens, and Trichoderma harzianum Againts Fusarium oxysporum Cause of Tomato Wilt Deseases

Penta Suryaminarsih, Kusriningrum ., Ni'matuzaroh ., Tini Surtiningsih

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 82-89
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/11026

This research was intended to discover the compatibility of biological control agents (BCAs) Streptomyces griseorubens, Gliocladium virens, and Trichoderma harzianum againts Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici  in vitro and in vivo.  Study was done in rainy season 2012-2013 at East Java-Indonesia. Study was a true experiment designed, using a completely randomized design (CRD), consist of three stages research. These stages were the compatibility of  three biological agents in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium, antagonistic test of  biological agents combinations of S. griseorubens, G. virens, and T. harzianum capable inhibited microbial pathogens F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in the laboratory and at the screen house. Mixed of BCAs S. griseorubens, G. virens, and T. harzianum were compatible and effectively against F. oxysporum in Petri dishes and at screen house. Clear zona avarage of antibiosis of BCAs filtrat in Potato Glucose extract shown that the antibiosis from mixed of S. griseorubens and T. harzianum was higher than the antibiosis of other BCAs treatment. Plant infested with mixed of BCAs significantly protected plant tomato from F. oxysporum compared to the untreated control plants. Plant protection by BCAs mixed of T. harzianum with S. griseorubens was more pronounced than plant protection by mixed of S. griseorubens with G. virens and single BCAs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Seed Size on Yield and Yield Parameters of Four Tropical Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) Varieties in Nsukka, South-Eastern Nigeria

A. E. Agahiu, Udensi Ekea Udensi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 90-99
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/14312

Field studies were conducted to determine the growth response of soybean to seed size at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria during the cropping season, June, 2008 to June, 2009.   In this study, four soya bean varieties (TGX 1448- 2 E, TGX 1455-2 E, TGX 1458-2 E and TGX 1497-ID) were used.  The micrometre screw gauge was used to sort out the seeds of each of these varieties into three sizes of small (9.6 g /100seeds), medium 13.3 g/100 seeds and large (16.3g/100seeds)  on the basis of seed weight and mean diameter.  The experiment was laid out as a split-plot in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. The four soybean varieties represented the main plot, while the seed sizes represented the subplots.  Our result shows that with the exception of plant height at maturity, seed size was important in the performance of the varietal attributes measured. Plant establishment was ≥ 60% for plants that grew from medium and large seed sizes while small seed size plants had ≤ 55% establishment. Days to 50% flowering and 50 % maturity were 55 days and 122 days for small seed size plants and 50 days and 113days for medium and large seed size plants. Number of nodules /plant averaged 12 nodules for plants that grew from small size seeds, and 15 and 18 nodules for medium and large seed size plants respectively. Number of pods/plant was significantly higher in medium and large seed size plants (43pods/plant) compared to small seed size plants (37pods/plant). An average number of seeds per pod were two seeds for medium and large seed size plants and one seed for small seed size plants. Seed weight per 100 seeds was 10 grams for small seed size plants and 12 and 16 grams for medium and large seed size plants respectively. Seed yield averaged one ton per hectare for medium and large seed size plants and less than one ton (600 kilograms) for small seed size plants. In conclusion, seed size accounted for more than 80 % performance of all the varietal attributes measured in this study. Therefore, in selecting planting material consideration should be given not only to variety but seed size of the planting material.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of a Few Evapotranspiration Models Using Lysimeteric Measurements in a Semi Arid Climate Region

Houshang Ghamarnia, Fatemeh Mousabeygi, Sajad Amiri, Davoud Amirkhani

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 100-109
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/14320

The determination of reference evaporation method in a region with different simple or complex equations requires a wide range of meteorological data. It is difficult task particularly in regions with lacking data collection facilities. One of the common methods for this purpose is the use of lysimeters. In the present study, daily lysimeteric data for two years (2012 to 2013) from April to July in each year were used to evaluate nine different grass evapotranspiration models including FAO-56 Penman–Monteith, Penman-Kimberly 1996, FAO-Penman equation, Blaney–Criddle, FAO-24 Radiation, Makkink, Turc, Priestley–Taylor, and Hargreaves in Kermanshah western part of Iran with semi-arid climate. Finally, the values of RMSE indicate that, the FAO - Penman-Monteith, Makkink and Hargreaves and Samani were found to be the most appropriate models for the studied region. Penman-Kimberly and FAO-Penman methods had the worst results among the studied models. FAO- Penman-Monteith, Makkink and Hargreaves-Samani methods recommended for reference evaporation estimation, irrigation planning and scheduling, dams reservoirs design and different surface or pressurized irrigation projects water requirement application under different crop patterns in Kermanshah region, while weather, radiation and temperature data have been available. Based on RMSE values, the FAO- Penman-Monteith, Makkink and Hargreaves & Samani methods estimated the lysimeter reference evaporation values most closely and Penman-Kimberly and FAO-Penman methods had the worst results in the region.