Open Access Short Research Article

Investigating Soil and Water Contamination of Trace Metals in Tarkwa-Nsuaem Municipality, Ghana

Issahaku Abdul-Rahaman, Lord Freeman, Boateng Ampadu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 217-226
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/14136

Tarkwa-Nsuam Municipality in the Western Region of Ghana has a long history of mining activity. In the Tarkwa area, small-scale mining is found all around; both in the forest and along the rivers. The study aimed at ascertaining the level of heavy metal pollution of water resources and soils in Tarkwa. The general objective of the project was to investigate the extent of health risk posed by heavy metals in mine drainage in the Tarkwa area. Soil and water samples were collected from 15 communities in the Tarkwa mining area and the concentrations in parts per million (ppm) of Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), and Lead (Pb) were determined in each sample using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples and the controls were irradiated in the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), operating at 15KW at a thermal flux of 5´1011 n s-1 cm-2. Selected communities in the Tarkwa mining area, especially, Teberebie, Mile7, Akyempim, Mile 8, Mile 10½, and Mile 9 however,have their water sources fairly contaminated with elevated levels of arsenic, mercury, and cadmium due to ‘galamsey’ activities. Since most of the bore holes have very low yields and do not serve the purpose for which they are provided, it is recommended that the focus on construction of bore holes as a cooperate social responsibility of mining companies should be shifted to extension of pipe-borne water rather.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Sowing Dates on Growth and Yield of Three Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br) Cultivars in West Darfur Sudan

M. M. H. Bashir, S. O. Yagoub, S. A. Ahmed Mohammed

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 191-200
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/14068

Aim: To study the effect of sowing dates on growth and yield of three pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br) cultivars.

Study Design: The treatments were arranged in split plot design with four replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiments were conducted for two consecutive seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13), in the rain-fed area of ELGeneina, West Darfur State, Sudan.

Methodology: Sowings were   applied throughout four sowing intervals namely: S1 = first sowing date in July 19th in season one and July 5th in season two, S2 = second sowing date in July 25th in season one and July 10th in season two, S3 = third sowing date in July 31th in season one and July 16th in season two, S4 = fourth sowing date in August 6 in season one and July 22th in season two.  The three pearl millet cultivars were; Dembi (V1), Bauoda (V2) and Hariri (V3). 

Results: The results obtained showed significant difference for the majority of growth and yield parameters except in stem diameters for two seasons. In general, among cultivars almost (Hariri) showed the weakest growth, mean while, (Dembi) and (Bauoda) had stronger growth and yield. The best sowing dates for all parameters were the S1 first sowing date (first July). while, V1S1 and V2S1 showed the greatest values for two seasons.

Conclusion: Under this condition of Sudan early sowing date (first and mid July) is the best optimum dates in term of growth and yield of millet, while Dembi and Bauoda cultivars can be recommended as good yielding cultivars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Introduction of New Landrace Varieties Adapted to Drought Stress

Bahram Heidari, Laleh Ghaed-Rahimi, Ali Dadkhodaie

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 201-211
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/14960

Screening and introducing landrace varieties (as useful cultigens) is important for cultivation under abiotic stresses in temperate regions with low precipitations. To evaluate the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landraces to post-heading drought stress, two types of cultigens including commercial cultivars and landrace varieties were cultivated under drought stress and fully irrigated conditions in 2010/11 and 2011/12. Drought stress reduced grain yield by 22 and 19% compare to fully irrigated conditions in the first and second year respectively. Regression models indicated that genotypes with higher grain yield under fully irrigated had higher grain yield under drought conditions. Thousand- grain weight and harvest index strongly affected by drought stress although plant height and heading date were less affected. Under drought condition, the highest grain yield (5.8-8.1 ton ha-1) was found in the landrace varieties KC4557, KC4633, KC4542, KC4862, KC3891 and KC4551 in both years. Grain yield of Shiraz and Cross-Boolani were 4.7 and 5.5 ton ha-1 respectively. Significant correlations of grain yield in fully irrigated (Yp) and drought (Ys) conditions with the indices of mean productivity (MP) and stress tolerance index (STI) support the idea that these indices are able to discriminate genotypic differences under drought conditions. Heading was not significantly correlated with grain yield. Therefore, selection for earliness does not affect grain yield under drought stress. Analysis of principal components indicated that the landrace varieties numbers KC4557 and KC4551 in 2010/11 and KC4633, KC4537, KC4862 and KC3891 in 2011/12 had higher grain yield under drought conditions. Results showed that landrace varieties had better performance than commercial cultivars under drought and KC4557, KC4633, KC4542, KC4862, KC3891 and KC4551 were more tolerant to drought conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cow Dung on Soil Properties and Performance of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) in Sudan Savanna, Nigeria

M. Haliru, A. U. Dikko, M. Audu, I. Aliyu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 212-216
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/14471

The study was conducted during the 2011/2012 dry season at two locations simultaneously, to evaluate the effect of cow dung rates on some selected soil chemical properties and performance of sweet potato. The trials were conducted at Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto vegetable research farm (Kwalkwalawa) and Bakalori irrigation project, Talata Mafara, Zamfara State, Nigeria. The three rates of cow dung were; 3, 2 and1 t/ha which was laid in randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated three times. The soil properties considered were; soil pH, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen and available phosphorus. Number of vines and leaves per plant, tuber weight and fresh tuber weight were among the growth and yield parameters considered for assessing the sweet potato performance. Result obtained were consistent as per locations, indicating that treatments have no significant effect (P>0.05) on soil properties, while significant (P<0.05) on growth and yield parameters of sweet potato. Application of 3t/h cow dung recorded the highest yield of 18.73t/ha. The result therefore, emphasized that, 3t/ha of cowdung is the best for better sweet potato yield without changes in soil properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Age of Eugenia aromatic Powder on the Control of Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais

O. F. Olotuah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 227-233
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/11788

The shelf life of Eugenia aromatica in the control of Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais was considered from its formulated dusts that was prepared and preseved for 5 years. Dry fruits of E. aromatic was obtained, pulverized and sieved to a particle size of 150 µm which was preserved in a air-tight plastic container under ambient laboratory conditions. To determine the efficacy of the powder, it was applied at one month later at 12 month ınterval for 5 years on a culture of cowpea storage beetles, C. maculatus and maize weevils, S. zeamais in No. 1 Kilner jars in the laboratory. The efficacy of the plant powder against C. maculatus and S. zeamais was measured by beetle mortality after 48 and 96 hours post-treatment respectively during which high insect mortality was observed at all stages of treatment applications. Also the number of eggs laid by introduced females, number of F1 beetles and seed holing after removal of F1 individuals were also determined for the control of C. maculatus while the number of F1 beetles and grain weight loss after removal of F1 individuals were determined for S. zeamais. General observations showed that there was no significant difference in the efficacy of E. aromatic with respect to all the parameters obtained on the two insect pests studied throughout the experiment. Thus, this study gave an insight to the proficient use of E. aromatic in storage pest control and well as the shelf life of its active ingredient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Medicinal Plants Diversity and their Utilization in Gilgit Region, Northern Pakistan

Ghulam Abbas, Qamar Abbas, Sher Wali Khan, Iftikhar Hussain, Syed Najumal-ul-Hassan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 234-248
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/9310

The District Gilgit and surrounding areas of northern Pakistan are rich in floral diversity. The research surveys were conducted during 2011-2012 to identify medicinal plants being used and their uses. The continuous field visits during March to August to collect the indigenous knowledge was recorded. The paper encompasses 54 plant species distributed among 29 families out of them 18 species had traditional usage. Fast urbanization, habitat destruction over grazing and over harvesting of medicinal plants has result in loss of native species and traditional knowledge among the local communities. Efforts are required to conserve habitat as well as indigenous knowledge of the study area.