Open Access Original Research Article

An Understory Comparison of the Exotic Phellodendron amurense Rupr. (Rutaceae) and Adjacent Native Canopy species in an Urban and Suburban Woodland

Eric C. Morgan, Jonathan A. Borysiewicz

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 328-338
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/13067

An understory comparison of the invasive tree species Phellodendron amurense Rupr. and surrounding native tree species at two locations in the greater New York metropolitan region is examined. The understory of canopies consisting of P. amurense was compared with adjacent canopies consisting of native tree species based upon their species density, richness and native understory composition. To determine if differences can be accounted for by shade cast by the canopy, leaf area indices were compared between the two canopy types at both locations.

At both locations there was a significantly lower number of individual plants per m2 quadrat under P. amurense than under native canopy (p < .0032; p < .0088) When looking at only native understory species, there was also a highly significant difference with P. amurense canopies having lower numbers of native individuals present per quadrat (p < .0009, p < .0001). There was also a significant difference between the invaded versus native sites in the mean number of total species per m2 quadrat at one site (p < .0001), while the second site showed a non significant difference (p < .0059).

Canopy Analysis revealed no significant differences in leaf area index between canopy types at either site although leaf area index was higher under native species at both locations indicating that shading is not likely to play a role in the lower density of understory individuals under P. amurense.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combined Effects of Soil Water Regimes and Rice Straw Incorporation into the Soil on 15N, P, K Uptake, Rice Yield and Selected Soil Properties

Adel Mohamed Ghoneim, Azza Ibrahim Ebid

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 339-349
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/15472

Understanding the effects of water regimes on nutrient uptake of rice plants, especially by different organic fertilizers is critical to improve long-term rice productivity. In a greenhouse experiment, the effects of soil water management and incorporation of rice straw into the soil on nutrient uptake, soil properties and rice productivity were studied in a clay soil. The treatment included two levels of soil water regimes (continuous submergence and alternate submergence-drying) and four rice straw levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha-1). Results showed that, soil pH decreased slightly with increasing rate of rice straw application in both continuous submergence and alternate submergence-drying. Soil Eh values were correlated to rice straw application levels. Alternate submergence-drying in rice plant for some period of time significantly increased rice growth parameters and rice yield. Nitrogen in rice plant was derived mostly from fertilizer (higher Ndff) values in continuous submergence and alternative submergence-drying. The highest 15N atom% values in plant were observed at panicle initiation stage under both water regimes. Most of 15N uptake by rice plant was from the soil (averaged 53%). The uptake of P, K and Zn nutrients was greater in continuous submergence than in alternate submergence-drying.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Exotic Rice Varieties for Genetic Parameters in a Nigerian Agro-Ecology

O. S. Osekita, B. O. Akinyele, A. C. Odiyi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 350-358
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/12828

Aim: The research focused on the performance of six exotic rice genotypes from Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) in a Nigerian agro-ecology.

Study Design: The varieties were evaluated in randomized complete block design replicated three times.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the research fields Crop, Soil and Pest Management, The Federal University of Technology Akure and Plant Science and Biotechnology Department, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria during the rainy and dry seasons of 2012/2013.

Methodology: During the period the rice varieties were planted to test for their ability to adapt to a Nigerian eco-system. The characters measured include plant height, number of tillers/hill, effective tillers with panicle, tillers without panicle, flag leaf length, panicle length, panicle weight, number of grains per panicle, number of spikelet per panicle, 1000_grain weight, number of filled grains per panicle, number of unfilled grains per panicle, grain length, grain width, number of days to heading, number of days to maturity and grain yield per hill. 

Results: Grain yield exhibited significant correlations with number of tillers per hill (0.733), effective tillers with panicle (0.826), panicle length (0.305) and panicle weight (0.339) which is a useful guide for selection in further breeding studies.

Conclusion: This study revealed the significant contributions of number of tillers per hill, effective tillers with panicle, panicle length and panicle weight as the sole determinant of total yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Age at Harvest and Leaf Position on the Yield and Nutritional Composition of Celosia argentea L.

O. A. Adediran, Z. Gana, J. A. Oladiran

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 359-365
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/15063

A pot experiment was carried out at the nursery site of the Department of Crop Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna (9°36’ N, 6°33’ E) Niger state, Nigeria. The study aimed at determining the effect of age of celosia plant at harvest on the yield and nutritional composition of the plant as well as the concentration of nutrients at different leaf positions. The experiment was a 3 x 3 factorial combination of three harvest periods (5, 7 and 9 weeks after sowing) and three leaf positions on the mother plant (upper, middle and basal) arranged in a completely randomized design. Harvested leaves were analyzed for the nutritional composition. The results showed that the whole plant fresh weight, varied significantly (p<0.05) with the age of plant at harvest, having the maximum and the minimum values at 9 weeks after sowing (266.19 g/pot) and 5 weeks after sowing (96.12 g/pot) respectively. The leaf fresh weight and leaf dry weight followed the same trend with the whole plant fresh weight. Crude protein and Na reduced significantly (p<0.05) with the age of the plant with the highest values recorded at 5weeks after sowing. Zn was highest at 7 weeks after sowing. K and Vit. C content were significantly higher at 9 weeks after sowing. Ca was highest at 9 weeks after sowing but there was no significant difference in the value obtained at 9 and 5weeks after sowing. Higher values of Fe were obtained at 7 and 9 weeks after sowing. The Mg content was not significantly affected by the age at harvest. The middle leaves had significant higher content of Mg and Vit. C when compared to the basal leaves but there was no significant difference between the values obtained in upper and middle leaves. Significant (p<0.05) higher values of Ca, Fe, and crude protein were recorded in the basal leaves. There was no significant difference in the values of K, P, Na, Fat and Zn obtained at the different leaf positions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Efficiency of Baby Corn Based Vegetable Intercropping Systems

S. Adhikary, A. V. V. Koundinya, M. K. Pandit, B. Bhattacharya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 366-374
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/14914

Aims: Experiment was conducted with the objectives to study the productivity, profitability and competition indices of intercropping systems and also to study the difference in progress of yellow vein mosaic virus in okra in sole and intercropping systems.

Study Design: Randomized Block Design with Four replications.

Place and Duration: The experiment was conducted in lower Gangetic alluvial zone of India at District Seed Farm (A-B Block), Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal during spring-summer season, 2013 and 2014.

Methodology: To achieve the objectives, in this experiment baby corn was taken as the base crop and it was intercropped with vegetables like cowpea, chilli, brinjal and okra. 

Results: Significantly highest Baby corn Equivalent Yield (BEY) was exhibited by baby corn + cowpea (150.8 q ha-1) followed by baby corn + okra (122.6 q ha-1) and baby corn + brinjal (120.9 q ha-1). Also significantly highest Benefit: Cost (B:C) ratio was observed in baby corn + cowpea (3.34) intercropping followed by baby corn + okra (3.29), baby corn + brinjal (3.28) and baby corn + chilli (3.15). All the intercrop treatments recorded Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) values more than 1 and highest LER value was observed for baby corn + cowpea (1.60) system. Highest Monetary Advantage Index (MAI) was also found for baby corn + cowpea (37833.5) intercropping system stating that it was the most profitable among all the intercropping treatments. The total Relative Crowding Coefficient (Kt) values ranged from 2.36-12.80 suggesting yield advantage through intercropping. Positive Aggressivity values of baby corn (Ab) were showing that baby corn dominated the vegetable intercrops. Higher Competitive Ratio for baby corn (CRb) values (4.12-6.75) than Competitive Ratio for vegetables (CRv) (0.15-0.27) indicated the higher competitive ability of the baby corn for resources than vegetable intercrops. In okra, the lesser Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (YVMV) incidence and slow progress in disease at 30 and 60 DAS were observed in intercropping situation than sole cropped okra. Conclusion: Summing up all, the study indicated that baby corn based vegetable intercropping systems were productive and profitable than sole cropping and also baby corn acts as barrier to the movement of whitefly, aphids etc.

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity of Mustard-Mung Bean Sequential Intercropping in Paired Row Sugarcane

M. J. Alam, M. M. Rahman, M. A. R. Sarkar, M. K. Rahman, M. S. Hossain, M. J. Uddin, M. K. Habib

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 375-386
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/14018

An experiment was conducted at Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute (BSRI) farm, Ishurdi for consecutive two years starting from 2008-2009 to 2009-2010 to find out the suitable mustard variety for mustard-mungbean sequential intercropping with paired row transplanted sugarcane. Tori 7, BARI Sarisha 9, BARI Sarisha 11, BARI Sarisha 15, BINA Sarisha 3 and BINA Sarisha 4 were used as mustard varieties. In this trial, PRC + onion - mungbean treatment combination was used as standard check. Results revealed that sequential intercropping practices did not affect sugarcane yield and juice quality. All the sequential intercropping treatments showed higher BCR than the sole cane crop. Among the treatment combinations, PRC + BARI Sarisha 9 - Mungbean performed better in respect of yield and yield contributing characters of sugarcane, yield of mungbean, net return, BCR and LER. Therefore, mustard (BARI Sarisha 9) - mungbean sequential intercropping with paired row transplanted sugarcane could be considered as a profitable combination for sustainable sugarcane farming with maintaining soil health.