Open Access Short communication

Fertility Improvements Methods of Frozen Soil in Central Yakutia of Russian Federation

Maximova Haritina Ivanovna, Nikolaeva Valentina Semenovna, Pribylyh Evdokiya Ivanovna, Lukin Vladimir Nikolaevich

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 359-364
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/15630

The paper presents the results of field studies on methods of increasing the fertility of soils in permafrost conditions of Cryolithozone.
It was established the effectiveness of the use of gypsum, green manure, as well as resource-saving tillage technology in the conditions of the permafrost zone, which increases the fertility of permafrost saline soils, which are poor in nitrogen and a low power humus layer. Adding gypsum at a dose of 4 t, 8 t, 12 t on saline soils contributes desolonetzization of soil in layer 0-40 cm, gypsum deposit options at a dose of 8-12 t/ha on a background of green manure and manure, soil alkalinity decreases from 8.56 to 7.54. At resource saving tillage technology observed preservation of productive moisture in frozen soils at 20-25% more than the recommended zonal tillage technology, reduced soil density from 1,23 g / m to 1.18 g / m3.

Open Access Original Research Article

14C-Glyphosate Mineralization in Soils Enriched with Glucose and Phosphate

Hang Susana, C. López Silvia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 310-318
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/16646

14C-Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) mineralization was studied in three upper soils, two Entic Haplustoll and one Typic Ustifluvent, with different physical and chemical characteristics but with similar climatic conditions, soil use and management. The evolved 14C-CO2 and CO2 were tracked over 28 d, sampled to 2 d, 7 d, 15 d, and 28d, while soil was incubated under laboratory conditions in three different treatments: glyphosate (GLY), glyphosate + glucose (GLY+C) and glyphosate + glucose + phosphate (GLY+C+P). The incubations were conducted in closed jars at 28±1ºC. At the end of the incubation period, the percentage of 14C-CO2 released ranged from 46.9% to 61.2% (GLY), 44.6% to 60.3% (GLY+C) and 45.1% to 62% (GLY + C+ P). In the S1 soil, 14C-glyphosate mineralization in the GLY+C+P treatment was significantly decreased (p<0.05) with respect to the GLY and GLY+C treatments. The observed changes in glyphosate mineralization may be associated with the presence of exogenous inorganic P which may have been utilized by microorganisms as a preferred alternative P source. S2 soil had the highest 14C-glyphosate mineralization but did not show any significant differences among the three treatments. S3 soil, with the highest concentration of organic C in the >50 µm, also revealed the lowest 14C-glyphosate mineralization, perhaps because the organic C was acting as an easily available carbon source. Addition of glucose (GLY+C) also depressed glyphosate mineralization in S3 soil. Soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation in the coarser soil size fraction (>50 µm) was easily oxidizable by the soil microorganisms, although it is not clear if this process negatively or positively impacted glyphosate mineralization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of the Flow Conducting Soil Pore Spectra Using Borehole Permeameter and Soil Core Samples

E. Hangen, F. Vieten, D. Strauß, M. Wittenbecher

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 319-329
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/16969

Aims: Hydraulic conductivity plays an important role in the evaluation of various soil functions, which in turn may become decisive in urban development plans. Different approaches to measure hydraulic conductivity often inhere in methodological artefacts. To address the subjected soil volume as well as different measurement approaches, in situ measurements using a constant-head permeameter were compared to lab-determined hydraulic conductivities of soil cores at adjacent soil profiles.
Methodology: At a forest, an arable, and a grassland site in a catchment in Northern Bavaria retention characteristics as well as hydraulic conductivities were quantified for 100 cm³- and 250 cm³-soil cores and constant-head permeameter measurements conducted. Using the van-Genuchten RETC-program, unsaturated hydraulic conductivities of the soil core samples were calculated.
Results: No volume-related differences between hydraulic conductivities of the 100 cm³- and the 250 cm³-soil cores became evident. Hydraulic conductivities of the soil cores markedly exceeded the values of the borehole permeameter approach. Contrasting the former with the hydraulic conductivities measured with the borehole permeameter, soil pore threshold diameters were derived that might be excluded from the infiltration process. While lab-determined hydraulic conductivities of soil cores were based on almost the whole soil pore spectrum, in-situ measurements mostly reflected matrix flow. This effect was most pronounced at the forest and least pronounced at the arable-land site, pointing to the respective soil pore spectra.
Conclusion: Borehole permeameter measurements should be chosen to illustrate percolation under standard conditions, while the soil-core approach is favourable under wet boundary conditions, when macropores are active, e.g. in the scope of flow and contaminant transport studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficiency of Rice Straw and Its Different Composts in Remediation of Cd and Pb Contaminated Sandy Loam Soil

Maha Mohamed El-Sayed Ali

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 330-340
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/17061

Remediation of heavy metals contaminated soils is necessary to reduce heavy metals availabilities and their uptake by crops. Development of cost-effective amendments is still a very important task in the soil environmental system for decreasing hazardous of heavy metals, and improving soil quality and crop production in low fertile and polluted soils. A pot experiment was carried out to determine the efficiency of rice straw (RS), rice straw compost (RSC) and rice straw-farmyard manure compost (RSFC) at three rates (0.25, 0.50 and 1%) in the amelioration of Cd and Pb polluted loamy sand soil. Faba bean plant was selected to be as an indicator plant in this experiment. The addition of RS, RSC and RSFC caused significant increases in soil chemical properties such as soil pH, organic matter (OM) and available phosphorus (AP). Application of RS, RSC and RSFC led to high reductions in soil available Pb and Cd contents. Availabilities of Pb and Cd were highly affected by soil chemical properties. Incorporation of RS, RSC and RSFC improved the growth of bean plants and decreased accumulations of Cd and Pb in their straw, roots and seeds. Absorptions of Cd and Pb were significantly decreased with increasing rates of RS, RSC and RSFC. The greatest seed yields of bean (5.12 and 6.00 g pot-1) were noticed at 1% RSC and 1% RSFC, respectively. Our study suggests that RS, RSC and RSFC are suitable organic amendments to improve fertility and quality of the chosen heavy metals contaminated sandy loam soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improvement of Nitrogen Use Efficiency Derived from Ammonium Sulfate Substitute Fertilizer in Sugarcane Cultivation through the Addition of Organic Amendment

N. Nurhidayati, A. Basit

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 341-349
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/17074

For increasing nutrient use efficiency and cane yield on application of ammonium sulfate (AS) fertilizer substitution was performed through addition of soil amendment. A pot experiment was conducted for seven month of sugarcane growth. The experiment used factorial randomized complete block design with three replication. Factor I was the application of AS fertilizer and its substitution which consisted of nine levels: three treatments using AS fertilizer, three treatments of AS substitute fertilizers using the mixture of urea+gypsum and three treatments using the mixture of urea+gypsum+biocompost. Factor II was the kinds of soil amendment which consisted of three levels: calcite, boiler ash, and biochar of sugarcane trash and one control treatment. The measured variables were leaf N content and uptake, nutrient use efficiency, and yield variables. The results of this study showed that the treatment using mixture of urea+gypsum tend a higher N uptake than AS fertilizer. Application of boiler ash and biochar had the highest N nutrient upatake. The highest nutrient use efficiency was found at the lowest rate of mixture of urea+gypsum (100 kg N ha-1) with application of soil amendment using biochar or boiler ash. The average increase in cane yield on this treatment compared to control by 250%. It is suggested that application of organic soil amendment is needed to increase N use efficiency of AS substitute fertilizer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of SEBAL and SEBS Algorithms in the Estimation of Maize Evapotranspiration

Bahman Farhadi Bansouleh, Ali Reza Karimi, Homayoun Hesadi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 350-358
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/15711

Crop evapotranspiration (ET) is an important parameter for agricultural water management. This parameter can be estimated by multiplying of reference crop evapotranspiration (ETO) and crop coefficient. Usually ETO is calculated based on (daily) weather data at the weather stations. Considering the spatial variations of the weather parameters and subsequently of ET, application of the methods which can consider these variations are interested. Developed algorithms to estimate ET based on satellite images is one of those methods. The aim of the current study was to assess the accuracy of estimated ET based on SEBAL and SEBS algorithms using LANDSAT TM images in Mahidasht, Kermanshah province, Iran. For this purpose, the ET of maize was calculated using four images of LANDSAT during the maize growing season in year 2010. At the same time, the actual ET of maize was measured in a Lysimeter in the same region. Results indicating reasonable match between measured and calculated crop evapotranspiration by both algorithms. The maximum difference between the calculated evapotranspiration by SEBAL and SEBS algorithms with measured values by Lysimeter were about 9.79% and 4.56% of measured ET, respectively.