Open Access Original Research Article

Sensitivity of Pigeon Pea Landraces [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] to Amiprophos Methyl Treatment

O. U. Udensi, E. A. Edu, E. V. Ikpeme, M. I. Ntia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 256-264
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/5150

Aim: The success of any chemical mutagenesis revolves on the use of plant-specific mutagen(s), optimal concentration(s) and appropriate soaking duration. This paper was aimed at evaluating the effect of amiprophos methyl on morphological and yield traits in pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.)Millsp.].
Methods: Thirty seeds each of two varieties of pigeon pea (brown “Fiofio”, white “Fiofio”) were soaked in 0, 4, 6 and 8 ppm amiprophos methyl (APM) for 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. They were planted in a 2 x 4 x 3 factorial layout using randomized complete block design (RCBD) in 10 replications.
Results: Results obtained revealed that there were significant effects (P =.05) of the treatments on the phenological, morphological and yield traits, except on percentage germination, especially when the seeds were soaked for 48 hrs, the variety and mutagen concentrations notwithstanding. Our result revealed that plants raised from white Fiofio seeds soaked in 4 ppm and 6 ppm APM for 48 hrs produced the highest number of flowers plant-1 (227.4±2.95; 212.6±3.57); the highest number of pod plant-1 (178.6±5.05; 124.6±4.55) and the seed yield (1016.0±0.79; 935.2±0.37), respectively.
Conclusion: Implicitly though, this could imply that these mutagen concentration and duration of exposure might be promising for pigeon pea productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil and Leaf Nutrient Analysis of the Endangered Herb, Baptisia arachnifera, in Georgia, United States

Ruth Ann Steinbrecher, Lissa Leege, Subhrajit Saha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 265-272
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/17959

A better understanding of the soil conditions and management practices of an endangered plant may help develop improved restoration and conservation plans. Proper soil and plant nutrient management is critical for the plant’s growth and health. To accomplish this goal, it is important to understand the nutrient status of the plant and the soil in which it is growing. Baptisia arachnifera (Hairy Rattleweed) is an endangered herbaceous legume for which basic nutrient information is not available. This species occurs only in Wayne and Brantley Counties of Georgia, United States and is found primarily in pine plantations. This study was conducted to investigate the plant and soil nutrient content of B. arachnifera populations. Leaf and soil samples were collected from six sites where the species was present and soil samples were collected from six sites where the species was historically absent. Samples were analyzed at the University of Georgia and Georgia Southern University, GA. Results indicated that leaf nutrients including aluminum, boron, copper, iron, manganese, sodium, and zinc ranged from 42.5–96.6, 18–33.1, 3.6–17, 48.8–79.9, 27.8–191.2, 1491.1–5964.1 and 10.6–19.9 ppm, respectively and differed significantly among sites. Differences were found in carbon, calcium and nitrogen, concentrations and it varied from 482–12969, 348–870 and <5–99 ppm, respectively. As most of the remaining populations exist in commercial pine plantations, timber management practices such as tillage, soil preparation, fertilizer application and harvesting may affect the nutrient status of soil and plant tissue. This study gives a baseline information about leaf nutrient content of B. arachnifera and relevant soil nutrient information, which may have implications to conservation and restoration strategies for this endangered species. Further research should be conducted to understand how soil nutrient availability may influence the leaf nutrient status and population distribution of B. arachnifera.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Variation of Soil Physicochemical Properties with Respect to Some Selected Tree Species in the Nigerian Northern Guinea Savanna

Toma Buba

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 273-283
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/17770

Aim: This study was aimed to find the impact of Parkia biglobosa ( Jacq.) Benth., Daniella oliveri (Rolfe) Hutch. & Dalziel and Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn. trees on some selected surface (0-15 cm depth) soil physicochemical properties in the Nigerian northern Guinea Savanna ecological zone.
Methodology: Soil samples were collected within the crown zones (CZs), outside CZs (2m away from the crown radii) and the open field which served as a control. The soil samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP), exchangeable potassium (EP), pH and particle size distribution.
Results: The result indicated that these trees have significantly (α = 0.05) affected some (but not all) soil physicochemical properties within and outside their CZs. Compared with the open field, alteration of soil physicochemical properties was found to be highest within CZs in general than outside CZs and the least was the opened field.
Conclusion: The patterns of impacts of P. biglobosaD. oliveri and V. paradoxa on different soil physicochemical properties were not the same. Each of these three different tree species has affected the soil underneath in a different way. On average, P. biglobosa has the highest impact followed by D. oliveri and the least was V. paradoxa. The soil properties that are greatly affected by the trees are OC and AP; while the least affected are pH and clay content. Such information is required for better understanding of the ecosystem and conservation of soil in particular and biodiversity in general.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical, Chemical and Pedological Characterization of the Soils of Solomon Mahlangu Campus Farm, Sokoine University of Agriculture Morogoro, Tanzania

U. K. Adamu, Jerome P. Mrema, J. J. Msaky

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 284-296
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/17977

A study was undertaken with a view to examine the morphological and physical properties and classifying the soils of part of the Solomon Mahlangu Campus farm, Sokoine University of Agriculture Tanzania, for improved agricultural productivity of the farm. Four soil profiles were excavated to represent the mapping units of the study area, examined and described. Samples were collected from the four pedons according to the pedogenic horizons identified, analyzed for both physical and chemical properties and characterized. The study reveals that, all the soils belong to two soil orders (Oxisols and Alfisols) in United State Development Agency (USDA) Soil Taxonomy or Acrisols in Food and Agricultural Organization FAO) / United nations educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) system of classification. At the suborder, the soils belong to Ustox and Ustalfs (Soil Taxonomy), while Ferric and Haplic in the level 2 category of FAO/UNESCO Classification [1]. Based on findings it was observed that, continual cropping without concurrent use of manure / inorganic fertilizer, over grazing and burning have contributed to low soils deficiencies and reduced soil fertility, leading to low crop yields in the farm. To increase the productive capacity of this farm, an integrated nutrient management system should be adopted which embraces a holistic approach of integrated use and management of organic and inorganic nutrient sources in a sustainable way.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrients Uptake and the Yield of Okra and Carrot in Response to Bioslurry and Inorganic N Fertilizers

Atif Muhmood, Abdul Majeed, Abid Niaz, S. Javid, Syed Shahid Hussain Shah, Asrar Hussain Shah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 297-305
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/17084

Bioslurry can be used as soil amendment to improve soil fertility in sustainable ways. The experiments to investigate the effect of bioslurry and inorganic fertilizers on nutrient uptake and yield of carrot and okra were conducted from 2011 to 2012 at Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Ayub Agriculture Research Institute Faisalabad. Both experiments were set up as randomized complete block design (RCBD) and provided with three replications, consisted of seven treatments (100 kg N inorganic fertilizer (IF), 100 kg N-fresh slurry (FS), 100 kg N-dried slurry (DS), 100 kg N-farm manure (FM), 50 kg N-FS and 50 kg N-IF, 50 kg N-DS and 50 kg N-IF, 50 kg N-FS and 50 kg N-IF for carrot, and 90 kg N inorganic fertilizer (IF), 90 kg N-fresh slurry (FS), 90 kg N-dried slurry (DS), 90 kg N-farm manure (FM), 45 kg N-FS and 45 kg N-IF, 45 kg N-DS and 45 kg N-IF, 45 kg N-FM and 45 kg N-IF for okra). Experimental results revealed maximum carrot (43.2 t ha-1) and okra (6.58 t ha-1) yield with the application of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers and it was statistically at par with treatment containing integration of fresh slurry and inorganic fertilizers. The uptake of nutrients by vegetables, and economics was also improved with the integration of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Resultantly, the combination of FS and IF was found best in improving the yield of carrot and okra on sustained basis and it also proved to be cost effective and economical.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Balance in Organic Raspberry Production with Dairy-manure Amendments

J. L. Ferrari, E. E. Martínez, M. V. Cremona

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 306-318
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/18425

Raspberry (Rubus ideaus) is a perennial crop that reaches commercial production after 4 to 5 years since planting. To improve of Raspberry crop production, fertilizers and manures are applied to the soil. Many farms in the Andean-Patagonian region produce organic crops, and apply manure obtained from complementary activities. A nutrient balance was studied in a raspberry crop amended with dairy manure since a decade by comparing continuously amended plants with respect to plants where amendment was suppressed. Soil nutrient concentrations of the crop area were compared with a nearly non-cultivated soil. The manure had a strong effect on phosphorus (P-Olsen), values being much higher than in pristine soils, around 60 mg kg-1, considered limit value to avoid soil P movement. The concentration in raspberry leaves exceeded 7 g kg-1 and 24 g kg-1 for K and N, respectively. There was a strong increase in the nutrient uptake from flowering to ripeness according to an increase of dry matter from 2196 kg ha-1 to 4791 kg ha-1. A slight dilution effect (nutrient concentration declines as the crop grows) of N, P and K in plants was observed. The nutrients added by the manure and nutrients returned to the soil by pruning resulted in a positive balance. A reduction of the quantities of manure may be applied in the last years of raspberry crop production.