Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Salt Stress in the Field on Performance, Correlations, Heritability and Selection Gain of Wheat Doubled Haploids

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, S. R. S. Sabry, M. M. M. Atta, Ola M. Abd El-Aleem

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/18900

The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of salt affected soils in different locations in Egypt on performance, variability, correlations, heritability, and genetic advance from selection of 117 bread wheat doubled haploids and 4 checks. The experiments were conducted at the locations (seasons) Serw (2011/12), Sakha (2011/12), Sakha (2013/14) and Gemmeiza (2013/14); where soil ECe was 9.4, 5.7, 5.5 and 2.4 dSm-1, respectively and water ECw was 0.5 -0.6 dSm-1. The reduction in grain yield/plant (GYPP) in the most affected environment by salt (Serw) as compared with the lowest affected environment by salt (Gemmeiza) (64.25%) was associated with significant (P ≤ 0.01) reductions in most studied traits and a slight increase (delay) in days to heading (DTH). Heritability percentages in the broad-sense were at maximum at Sakha (2013/14) for PH, DTM, GFP and GFR and Sakha (2011/12) for NSPP, NGPS, TGW and GYPP. However, the highest expected genetic advance (GA%) from selection in the field was observed at the most affected environment by salt (Serw) for most studied traits. Traits NSPP, GFR, GFP, TGW and GYPP could be recommended as selection criteria for salinity tolerance in the field.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sustainable Production of Cabbage Using Different Irrigation Levels and Fertilizer Types Affecting Some Soil Chemical Characteristics

M. A. A. Abdrabbo, F. A. Hashem, M. A. Abul-Soud, Shaimaa H. Abd-Elrahman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/17590

A field experiment was carried out during the two successive autumn seasons of 2013 and 2014 under open field conditions in protected cultivation site, Agriculture Research Centre, Giza governorate, Egypt. The study was investigating the effects of different irrigation levels (50, 75 and 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc)) and different sources of fertilizers (inorganic fertilizers (control), cattle manure, compost and vermicompost) on some soil chemical characteristics and vegetative growth, yield and water use efficiency of head cabbage. Obtained results showed that soil pH decreased at the end of experiment with a range of 0.08-0.30, compared with before cultivation, with high decreases by 50% of ETc combined with vermicompost. ECe, on the other hand, increased due to different agricultural activities such as adding chemicals and fertilizers, with higher effect at treatment of 50% of ETc combined with cattle manure. Regarding the availability of N, P and K in the studied soil, the results showed that, N and P values decreased after harvest of plants, K values being however increased. In addition, organic fertilizers increased soil organic matter at the end of experiment to achieve the sustainability in agriculture, compared with application of mineral fertilizers. Also, the results showed that using different irrigation levels and organic fertilizers significantly affected the vegetative growth, nutrients content N, P and K in cabbage plants. Regarding the irrigation water treatments, 100% of ETc gave the significant highest number of leaves, head length, head width, head density, head volume along with fresh and dry weight per plant during the two studied seasons. Inorganic fertilizer treatment recorded the highest values in vegetative growth. Increasing water level up to 100% of ETc enhanced yield with different organic fertilizer treatments. However, regardless of organic fertilizer treatments, using 50% of ETc increased water use efficiency compared to other treatments of irrigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Temporal Variations in Micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) Mineralization as Influenced by Animal and Plant Manure-Amended Marginal Soils, Southeastern Nigeria

Eteng, Ernest U

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/18878

Low soil fertility is identified as a major factor militating against crop production in many tropical cropping systems where fertilizer used is low and agricultural residues are not returned to the soil for its rejuvenation. The present study was therefore conducted to determine the influence of organic manure application on micronutrient cations (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) mineralization in five different marginal soils. Four sources of animal manure (cattle, goat, poultry and swine) and two sources plant residues manure (oil palm bunch and rice husk dust) and a control were added to the soils (alluvial deposits, basalt, basement complex rock, coastal plain sand sandstone and shale) at the rate of 10 t ha-1and, incubated for 8 weeks at a temperature of 30°C. The soils were sampled at weekly intervals and analyzed for pH and available Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. The results indicated that organic amendments increased soil pH regardless of the type of manure used. Cumulative mineralized Cu was highest in basalt (4.48 mgkg-1) followed by basement complex rock (3.52  mgkg-1) soils. Available Fe was highest in shale (4.93 mgkg-1) followed by alluvial deposit (4.93 mgkg-1) soils. Manganese was highest in basement complex rock (7.39 mgkg-1) followed by coastal plain sand (4.22 mgkg-1) soils. While, Zn was highest in basement complex rock (5.13 mgkg-1) followed by shale (4.56 mgkg-1) and alluvial deposit (4.48 mgkg-1) soils. Similarly, the cumulative mineralized Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn contents were highest in poultry manure (6.53, 5.04, 4.64 and 5.39 mg kg-1) respectively, followed by swine and goat manures. The lowest values for available Cu (1.73 mg kg-1) and Zn (1.55 mg kg-1) was in oil palm bunch while, Mn (1.33 mg kg-1) was in rice husk dust.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Mulching Effects on Water Productivity, Maize Yield and Soil Properties in Bed and Flat Sowing Methods

S. S. H. Shah, S. B. Ahmad, S. H. H. Shah, A. Muhmood, A. Nawaz, A. Niaz, A. Wakeel, A. Majeed

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/18352

A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of mulching on water productivity, soil properties and maize yield (Zea mays L.) in bed and flat sowing methods at Research Area of Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Wheat straw mulch was applied @ 8 t ha-1. Randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement was used. Four treatments with four replicates were used. A measured amount of irrigation was ensured using cut throat flume as and when required. The bed sowing with mulch interaction enhanced water productivity from 34 to 115% compared with other combinations. This interaction also improved soil chemical and physical fertility by increasing total nitrogen from 24 to 62% and decreasing bulk density from 4.4 to 11.0%, respectively compared with other interactions. The soil structure of beds was improved by 6.0% lower bulk density, 15.1% higher infiltration rate and 35% higher soil organic carbon as compared with flat sowing. In this short term study, the improved soil structure of beds with wheat straw mulch resulted in enhanced grain yield and water productivity in comparison to flat sowing with wheat straw mulch. Long term studies may be required to detect further mineralization effects of wheat straw on soil physical and chemical properties in relation to water productivity and crops yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity by Arsenic Contamination in Glycine max. L

Silvana Mariel Marsa, Franco R. Rossi, Hugo A. Valdez, Diego F. Gomez-Casati, Fanny Zirulnik

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/18979

Introduction: Volcanism is an important natural origin of Arsenic (As) contamination.

Aims: Oxidative stress parameters, antioxidant defense system, the expression of transcripts involved in defense responses and the As genotoxicity were analyzed.

Study Design: The plants were separated into two groups (Control and As-treated ones) until they were exposed to As (2.5 and 5 ppm) at day 10.

Methodology: Biochemical, molecular and cytogenetic determinations were carried out.

Results: Arsenic treated plants show growth abnormalities. The antioxidant defenses and oxidative parameters in roots and leaves showed different tissue-specific responses. Whereas leaf tissues display an active antioxidant defense, root cells are unable to produce defense molecules and show oxidative stress. Moreover, the analysis of antioxidant enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, showed higher activity in leaves than in roots, except for isocitrate dehydrogenase. The expression of GR and MAPK decreased significantly in all the treatments during the time curve. ICDH showed an increase in its expression with 24 hours of treatment and falls at 72 hours compared to their controls. Genotoxicity assays showed a decrease of mitotic index (MI) and the presence of altered nucleus, in samples exposed for 72 hours.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the physiological, biochemical, molecular and cytogenetic behavior of the plants depends on the As concentration and the length of the exposure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combining Pre-sowing Treatments in Faidherbia albida (Delile) A. Chev. does not Imply Better Germination Success

G. B. Chuyong, T. Acidri

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/19266

Aims: Seed dormancy has been an impeding factor in seedling recruitment. In this study we examined the performance of Faidherbia albida (Delile) A. Chev. seeds when exposed to the hot water + nicking pre-sowing treatment by evaluating the Cumulative Germination Percentage (CGP), Germination Velocities (GV) and Survival Percentages (SP).

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the shade house of the Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea between November 2014 and December 2014.

Methodology: One hundred and eighty viable seeds were exposed to the hot water, nicking, hot water + nicking combination and control treatments, respectively, in germination boxes watered (8 litres) once a week for the duration of the experiment (40 days).

Results: We found significant differences between the type of pre-sowing treatment and resulting Daily Germination Percentages (DGP) (χ2 = 261.299, P <.001). The highest CGP (74.4%), GV (16) and SP (93.3%) were obtained using the nicking treatment with the hot water + nicking combination treatment performance as CGP (56.1%), GV (13) and SP (63.4%) and the control, interestingly, produced the second best performance CGP (60.6%). The lowest CGP (51.1%) and GV (6) were obtained with the hot water treatment (51.1%).

Conclusion: Combining the two pre-sowing treatments does not positively influence germination. Nicking is the best pre-sowing treatment method that should be preferred and adopted in the propagation of F. albida.