Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Symbiotic Microorganisms on Turfgrass under Two Irrigation Regimes

P. Baltzoi, I. L. Tsirogiannis, D. Dimou, O. Kostoula, P. Yfanti, G. Patakioutas

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/19359

Aim: Efficient use of irrigation water is one of the main goal for turfgrass keepers. In this study, the ability of selected symbiotic microorganisms to improve turfgrass visual quality and growth under two different irrigation regimes was investigated.

Study Design: Three soil inoculants, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 (B), Glomus intraradices (G) and Trichoderma harzianum (strain T-22) (T) were applied to a loamy sand soil in order to colonize Festuca arundinacea, ‘Grande II’. Regarding irrigation differentiation, a stress cycle, during which soil moisture was kept at the level of 50% of available soil water, was applied.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted under open field conditions in North West Greece during the summer of 2014.

Methodology: Twenty four rectangular compartments of 1x2m each hosted the plots. The experimental design was multi-factorial, involving two factors (the three above mentioned root symbiotic microorganisms and two soil moisture level (100% and 50% of available soil water) treatments) and completely randomized regarding the microorganisms, with 3 replications per treatment. A number of parameters like climatic conditions, soil moisture, colonization, dry weight of clippings and canopy spectral reflectance were measured.

Results: The results showed that T. harzianum T-22 and B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 promoted the aerial plant growth (total dry weight of clippings) of F. arundinacea under water stress conditions while G. intraradices had no effect on the growth. In qualitative terms, no statistically significant differences were found among treatments.

Conclusion: The results of this open field study provide promising evidence regarding the potential for agronomic application of the soil inoculants that were evaluated.

Open Access Short communication

Seed Protein in Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz var. Calena

Roberto Russo, Remo Reggiani

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/19003

Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an oilseed crop used for biofuel production. By-products from oil extraction are high in protein (about 35%) and can be used for animal feed. The aim of this study was to characterize the protein fraction of camelina meal. The protein fraction of camelina meal is composed by 60% of globulins. The amino acid profile showed an interesting content of sulfur amino acids, but it was rather deficient in lysine. Seed storage proteins were mainly accumulated between 14 and 42 days after pollination, indicating that, at maturity, the accumulation of protein is already finished. SDS-Page separation of meal protein during the development of the seed showed that the 12S globulin is the principal storage protein.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Assessment by Aspergillus niger of an Onion, Cattle Manure and Alfalfa Waste Compost Blend

G. Pellejero, C. Pozzo Ardizzi, G. Aschkar, A. Chorolque, R. Jiménez Ballesta

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/18469

Using different agricultural waste composts as organic amendments or substrates for seedlings has increased in recent years. From remote times, organic waste has been associated with disease and agriculture fertility. However, determining the load of phytopathogenic microorganisms that can persist in mature compost is essential given the risk of them becoming a transmitter of disease. In the present work, A. niger survival in mature compost made with onion waste mixed with cattle manure and alfalfa waste was assessed. The relationships between the inoculum of A. niger loads present in mature compost and the quantitative ranges of the evaluated parameters were established. To this end, the Aspergillus nigerinoculum in the onion compost, obtained after a 6-month composting process, was used. The pH, EC and C:N ratio values in the three compost products do not limit them from being used as substrates in horticultural seedling production or as an organic soil amendment. These results are consistent with the research reported by other authors. Hence this compost can be successfully used as a substrate component in horticultural seedling production and as an organic fertilizer in soils without damaging crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using Pedotransfer Functions to Assess Aggregate Stability: Application to the Lower Cheliff Soils, Algeria

Djamel Saidi, Zineb Hamel, Adda Ababou

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/12316

Soil physical properties have been subjected to a growing number of studies in recent decades. Although, these parameters can be measured directly, their measurement is difficult and expensive, especially in terms of time, sampling date, storage and cost of measurement. Overcoming these difficulties is through the development of pedotransfer functions (PTFs), which predict soil physical properties from other soil parameters. The main objective of this study was the establishment of PTFs through more easily accessible soils parameters, in order to predict soil aggregate stability by using the mean weight, diameter (MWD) and provide information about the behaviour of soil aggregation under the impact of rainfall or irrigation. PTFs selected according to various classifications were applied to the lower Cheliff soil. Results showed the existence of diverse classes of aggregate stability in the study area, varying from unstable to highly stable soils and also a varying relationship between measured and estimated aggregate stability according to soil classification and predicting model with a coefficient of determination varying from 0.67 to 0.94, the highest relationships were shown by clayey soils and soils containing a high organic matter percentage.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Potentiality of Organic Rice Production Fertilized with Different Agroforestry Tree Leaf Litter in Northern Bangladesh

Md. Abu Hanif, Md. Shafiqul Bari, Md. Abdullah Al Mamun, Polash Roy, Ranjan Mitra Roy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/19277

This paper provides information on eco friendly rice production using tree leaf biomass as a source of organic fertilizer. The experiment was conducted in Agroforestry Research Farm, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh to evaluate the response of different leaf litter biomass of different agroforestry species on the yield of rice (BRRI DHAN 49). The experiment includes 10 different treatments i.e. T0 (recommended doses of chemical fertilizer), T1 (100 g of Albizia), T2 (200 g of Albizia), T3 (300 g of Albizia), T4 (100 g of Leucaena), T5 (200 g of Leucaena), T6 (300 g of Leucaena), T7 (100 g of Melia), T8 (200 g of Melia) and T9 (300 g of Melia). The experiment was conducted following Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The result of the experiment revealed that, highest yield (5.66 tha-1) was recorded in T0 (recommended doses of chemical fertilizer). Among the treatments with leaf biomass, maximum yield was recorded in T3 (300 g of Albizia) 5.23 tha-1 followed by 5.04 tha-1 in T6 (300 g of Leucaena). Although, the yield was maximum with inorganic fertilizer but rice can be cultivated successfully with leaf biomass as a low cost environment friendly sustainable production system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economically Optimal N Fertilizer Rates for Maize Produced on Vertisol and Inceptisol Soils under No-Till Management: A Case Study in Maphutseng, Lesotho

Ivan B. Cuvaca, Dayton M. Lambert, Forbes R. Walker, Makoala Marake, Neal S. Eash

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/19371

Aims: To determine differences in maize yields, optimal nitrogen (N) rates, and profitability on contrasting soil types and no-till and till management.

Study Design: Randomized block design field trials involving no-tillage and tillage practices were conducted on contrasting soil types (vertisols and inceptisols) to investigate the effect of N fertilizer rates on maize (Zea mays) grain yield.

Place and Duration of Study: Mohale’s Hoek District, Maphutseng, Lesotho over the 2012/2013 agricultural year.

Methodology: Maize response to N was estimated with a linear response plateau function. Economically optimum N rates were estimated for both soil types and tillage practices assuming typical corn and N fertilizer prices for the 2012/2013 agricultural marketing year.

Results: The economically optimal N rates were estimated at 141 kg of N ha-1 with a predicted maize grain yield of 7.75 tons ha-1 for no-till vertisol maize system, 150 kg of N ha-1 with a predicted maize grain yield of 4.90 tons ha-1 for no-till inceptisol maize system, and 73 kg of N ha-1 with a predicted maize grain yield of 7.37 tons ha-1 for the till vertisol maize system. A Monte Carlo analysis suggests these findings are robust to N cost, maize prices, and sampling uncertainty.

Conclusion: Findings of this study suggest that if other production factors remained constant, farmers in Lesotho - a country where access to commercial fertilizer is limited and average fertilizer N use is less than 25 kg ha-1 - would need to increase significantly their N fertilizer rates to meet their food needs.