Open Access Short Research Article

Genetic Evaluation of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes at Seedling Stage for Their Tolerance to Lead

M. M. Yacout, M. Moussa, A. E. Draz, W. F. Ghidan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/20115

Twelve Egyptian Rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes have been used in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) experiment with three replicates to study their tolerance to lead at seedling stage Those genotypes were: Giza 177, Giza 178, Giza 179, Giza 181, Giza 182, Sakha 101, Sakha 102, Sakha 103, Sakha 104, Sakha 105, Sakha 106 and Egyptian Yasmin. Final Germination Percentage (FGP), Germination Index (GI), Root Length (RL), Shoot Length and Root/Shoot Ratio (R/S %) were estimated under different concentrations of lead. Results indicated that there were highly significant differences between studied genotypes and treatments. Mean performance for studied characters was discussed.

 

Open Access Short communication

Boron Uptake, Yield and Quality of Carrot (Daucus carota L.) In Response to Boron Application

Sadia Sultana, Atif Muhmood, Syed Shahid Hussain Shah, Ifra Saleem, Abid Niaz, Zahid Ashfaq Ahmed, Abdul Wakeel

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/19667

Boron is directly or indirectly involved in the enhancement of quality and quantity of crops especially vegetables and fruits so this study was planned to assess the boron uptake, yield and quality of carrot in response to boron application at Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental Science, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute Faisalabad. The study was set up as randomized complete block design with three replications. Six treatments viz. Control (No fertilizer), recommended dose (RD) of Chemical fertilizers (CF), RD of CF + 0.5 kg B ha-1, RD of CF + 0.75 kg B ha-1, RD of CF + 1.0 kg B ha-1, RD of CF + 1.25 kg B ha-1 were tested. The results depicted that the higher levels of boron i.e 1.0 and 1.25 kg ha-1 along with RD of CF resulted in higher yield (14 and 18% respectively), higher uptake (47.8 and 93.1 g ha-1 respectively) and caused reduction in carrot damage (42 and 39% respectively) in comparison with recommended dose of chemical fertilizers. The highest level of boron (1.25 kg B ha-1) responded highest boron concentration (47.6 ppm) in carrot fruit and vice versa in control (19.1 ppm) where no boron application was practiced. The boron application is essential and crucial need of the hour along with chemical fertilizers for enhancing the quality and quantity of carrot and avoiding the soils to become boron deficient. In this perspective future research should be inclined on role of B in vegetable production with levels > 1.0 kg ha-1 under boron deficient soils.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Potential Use of Vermicompost in Soilless Culture for Producing Strawberry

M. A. Abul-Soud, M. S. A. Emam, Noha G. Abd El-Rahman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/20009

The need for recycling organic wastes should be one of the priorities of urban as well as rural regions under the climate change impacts to minimize the consumption of natural sources. Two studies were conducted out during two successive winter seasons at the Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Giza, Egypt. The first study (2011/2012 and 2012/2013) was to investigate the effect of vermicompost as an alternative organic substrate mixed with different mineral substrate perlite, vermiculite and sand (20 : 80% v/v)  compared to peat moss + perlite (50 : 50% v/v) combined with different sources of nutrient solutions (vermicompost-tea, compost-tea and chemical) on the growth and yield of strawberry. Improving the physical and chemical properties of substrates (Sand and perlite) by vermicompost investigated in the second study (2012/2013 and 2013/2014) by mixing vermicompost with sand and perlite instead of peat moss in different proportions of 15:85, 30:70 and 45:55%(v/v) respectively compared to sand 100% and perlite 100%. Strawberry cv., Sweet charley and Festival F1 hybrid were cultivated under unheated plastic house and low tunnels in the first and second experiments respectively.

The obtained data of the first study revealed that chemical nutrient solution recorded the highest values of vegetative, yield (337 and 359 g/plant) and quality characteristics of strawberry, while using vermicompost as a substrate mix combined with different substrates had a positive significant effect compared to control. Vermicompost + sand followed by vermicompost + vermiculite recorded the highest results of vegetative, yield (327 and 356 - 329 and 346 g/plant) respectively and quality characteristics of strawberry. 

The second experiment illustrated that increasing the vermicompost rate had a negative significant impacts on growth and yield of strawberry. In general the substrate mixture of vermicompost + sand (15: 85%) gave the highest growth, yield (552 and 585 g/plant), quality and chemical contents. Also, vermicompost with sand mixtures generally recorded the highest yield compared to the vermicompost with perlite mixtures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wheat Response to Applied Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Phosphorous in three Representative Areas of the Central Highlands of Ethiopia -I

Assefa Menna, Johnson M. R. Semoka, Nyambilila Amuri, Tekalign Mamo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/20055

Eighteen explorative field experiments were conducted in 2012/2013 seasons in three representative areas in central highlands of Ethiopia, to evaluate the effects of sulfur (S) vis-à-vis nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) on wheat. Furthermore, an assessment was made on the status of sulfur in soils/plants. Two levels of S(0 and 20 kg/ha); 2 levels of P(0 and 20 kg/ha); and 2 levels N(0 and 69 kg/ha) were used as gypsum, triple-superphosphate (TSP) and urea respectively. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used as an experimental design in three replications. Statistical analysis using SAS showed significant response (P<0.001) in grain and other yield components of wheat. All studied fields showed full-response (100%) to applied N, as directly related to soil-test values. Likewise, 72.3% of fields/sites showed response to S. Similar as N, all fields tested low in available P, but 78% showed response to applied P. Good relationship between soil-test values and crop-response for N and S was observed. But, for P in some fields inconsistencies exist. TSP reported to contain 2-6% by weight of S, however, pair-wise comparisons didn't reveal yield response beyond 20kg S/ha. In the study, it is learnt that light textured and calcareous vertisols in the peripheries of rift-valley were found to be more deficient in S. There are strong indications that, S response/deficiency which is now observed in central highlands can be widespread, if such assessments were made across the country, especially far into out fields. Therefore, it is important to include S, in the balanced fertilizer formula. Indeed, for the smallholding farmers it is imperative to sustainably build soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks close to critical levels. It is also important to augment inorganic and organic fertilizers with local S sources (e.g., gypsum) to take advantage of integrative benefits and/or to economize fertilizer use.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytoaccumulation of Heavy Metals in a Waste Engine Oil-contaminated Soil by Aspillia africana After Exposure to Hydroxyl Amine Hydrochloride Pre-treatment

Beckley Ikhajiagbe, Chinenye C. Chijioke-Osuji

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/19099

This study employed the use of NH2OH.HCl in the pre-treatment of Aspilia africana for the phytoremediation of waste engine oil-contaminated soil for a period of three months. 8 kg of soil was obtained, weighed and polluted at 5% W/W of waste engine oil which was replicated in 18 buckets and left for a period of one month to attenuate naturally before sowing with stems of Aspilia africana which were treated with four different concentrations of NH2OH.HCl (0.03125%, 0.0625%, 0.1250% and 0.2500% w/v) by soaking in the solution for one hour after which the planted stems were exposed for another two months with vegetative and physico-chemical parameters measured. The control was treated in distilled water (i.e. 0% w/v). Concentrations of heavy metals as well as Polyaromatic hydrocarbon in the contaminated soil were high after contamination and thus would normally be expected to impact the nutrients in the soil responsible for plant growth; with Cu present at a concentration of 26.24 mg/kg at 1 month after contamination (MAC) as compared to their none availability in the soil before contamination. As the plants matured with increase in time however, heavy metal concentrations in the soil decreased to the barest minimum in the soil with Cu (26.24 mg/kg at 1 MAC) been remediated to 0.40 mg/kg at 3 MAC using 0.0312% concentration of NH2OH.HCl treated Aspilia africana. It was observed that a considerable amount of Heavy metal concentrations in the contaminated soil were gotten rid of in the soil within the three months period that the experiment was carried out. Phytoremediation technology had worked for the degradation of contaminants in the soil and thus rendered the soil good for other useful purposes including agriculture and also to be kept for future reclamation activities. It is expected that further studies on this method of remediation will expose us to greatly appreciate nature’s gift of cleansing our environment for mankind.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Improvement of Wheat Grain Zinc and Zinc Daily Intake by Biofortification with Zinc

Ifra Saleem, Shahid Javid, Shabana Ehsan, Abid Niaz, Fatima Bibi, Zahid Ashfaq Ahmed

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/19739

Billions of people all over the world are being affected by zinc deficiency that causes stunted growth and poorly developed immune system. The approach to enrich the grains of food crops with nutrients is biofortification. To overcome the human zinc deficiency, improving wheat grain in zinc status by fertilization is an effective tool and main objective of the work. The wheat grain should have 40-60 mg kg-1 zinc to meet up the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of zinc. A field experiment was conducted on wheat crop to increase the zinc concentration in its grain. Three levels of zinc were applied  2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kg ha-1 as soil application at the time of sowing using ZnSO4 as a source and foliar spray of 0.1% Zn solution was applied at booting and grain filling stage. A control plot was also kept where no zinc fertilization was done to the wheat. The wheat crop gave maximum grain yield (4.62 t ha-1) where Zn was applied as 7.5 kg ha-1 as soil application than the treatment where no Zn supplementation was done (4.23 kg ha-1). The grain analysis indicates that zinc concentration improved significantly where zinc was applied as compared to control (no Zn) plots.  It increased in wheat grain up to 39.80 mg kg-1 in treatment where Zn was applied as foliar spray of 0.1% zinc solution as compared to NPK treatment (21.5 mg kg-1). This increase was 84.8% more than control where no zinc supplementation was done. It is concluded from this study that Zn may be applied to wheat not only to increase the yield but also to improve the grain quality. The daily intake of Zn increased up to 14.3 mg day-1 by consuming the bio-fortified wheat which is near to the recommended daily intake of Zn for an adult person.