Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Farm Yard Manure and Goat Manure as Organic Amendment on Physico-chemical and Physical Properties of Theri Soil

E. Indira, B. Annadurai

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/20519

The study on soil quality assessment in red sandy soils (chemical Theri soil) of Punnai Nagar (Kachanavillai) in Tuticorin district, Tamilnadu, south India was carried out during 2014(Oct) to 2015(Jan). Investigations were carried out on the surface (15 cm depth) of soil samples with the objective to assess the available nutrients and their relationship with various physico-Chemical properties. The soil has low  available N=78 kg/ha, low organic carbon OC=0.19%, medium P=5 kg/ha, K=104 kg/ha and Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu are  takes a value of 0.369 ppm, 0.985 ppm, 4.861 ppm and 1.996 ppms. Theri soil subject to higher rate of erosion resulting in low nutrient and minerals. The permeability of water in theri soil is high and is not suitable for agriculture which is presently considered as a wasteland. Hence, the fertility and productivity of theri soil may be improved on sustainable basis using Organic farming. The treatments of this study were combination of Farmyard manure (FYM) and Goat manure. The experiment was laid out in Pot culture with 3 replications. All the amendments were applied and wetting with water regularly for 90 days without allowing them to get dried. After 90 days measurements were made. The result suggest that the use of organic amendment  will increases NPK, Water holding capacity, Pore space, EC, Organic Carbon and decreased  pH, bulk density, Particle density, Hydraulic conductivity. These changes in soil environment improved the soil fertility without affecting soil health.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Greenhouse Gas Emission from Cauliflower Grown under Different Nitrogen Rates and Mulches

A. A. Farag, Shaimaa H. Abd-Elrahman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/19880

A field experiment was conducted during the two successive seasons of 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 at El-Bosaily farm, El-Behira governorate, Egypt, to study the effect of different nitrogen rates and mulch treatments on plant growth and yield of cauliflower (Brassica oleracia var. botrytis). The study includes three mulch treatments (transparent and black polyethylene sheets, and bare soil as a control) and four N rates 30, 45, 60 and 75 kg/feddan (1 feddan = 4200 mand hectare = 2.4 feddan) designed in a split plots with three replicates. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of N2O and CO2 from N fertilization were calculated for different treatments. Regarding the polyethylene (PE) mulch, data revealed that transparent PE recorded the highest significant values of cauliflower growth characters during the two studied seasons. Increasing N rate up to 60 kg/feddan enhanced cauliflower growth using different polyethylene mulch treatments; yield was not increased significantly with increasing N rate up to 75 kg/feddan. The highest significant cauliflower yield was obtained by using 60 kg N/feddan combined with transparent mulch, while the lowest yield was obtained in case of 30 kg N/feddan combined with bare soil treatment. Chemical analysis of cauliflower leaves at harvest revealed that the percentage of N, P and K increased significantly with increasing N rate up to 75 kg/feddan. Polyethylene mulch treatments increased N, P and K percentages significantly in comparison with bare soil treatment. Moreover, the greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CO2) from fertilization increased but the emission rates (kg CO2/kg yield) were decreased by increasing N rate due to the highest cauliflower production. The highest yield with low emission was obtained by 60 kg N/feddan.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

SDS-PAGE of Ophioglossum vulgatum Proteins

M. S. Chernyshenko, V. O. Chernyshenko, L. I. Musatenko

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/21695

Background: Despite that the protein composition is one of the main characteristics of plant organism, there are not many studies dedicated to the fern proteins characterisation. Protein composition as a part of biochemical characterisation of Ophioglossum vulgatum (an evolutionary distinct fern species related to Psilotaceae) is of interest from the point of view of ecology, taxonomy and plant biochemistry.

Aims: Study of the protein composition of roots and leaves of O. vulgatum during seasonal ontogenesis of its sporophytes.

Methodology: SDS-PAGE with following densitometry was used for the estimation of protein composition of roots and leaves of O. vulgatum collected from young plants, mature plants, spore-bearing and not spore-bearing plants at the peak of their seasonal development. To determine the phosphorylation of studied proteins the electrophoresis using Phos-tag™ Acrylamide Gels were applied.

Results: The simple and effective method of protein extraction from the leaves and roots of O. vulgatumwas developed and applied. Protein fractions with the molecular weights of 112±1.3, 57±1.0, 45±1.2, 35.5±0.6, 25.8±0.5, 18±1.5 kDa were shown as the major for both leaves and roots. Huge RuBisCO accumulation during the stages of plant initial growth and spore-bearing was shown (up to 55±10% in leaves and 89±5% in roots). All large chains of detected RuBisCO were phosphorylated which suggests that the active form of O. vulgatum RuBisCO is phosphoprotein.

Conclusion: The dynamic change of protein content was shown for different ontogenesis stages of O. vulgatum. The expression of phosphorylated RuBisCO was distinctly increased during the beginning of leaf development and spore-bearing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Brassinolide on the Growth of Mustard Crops Grown in Semi-arid Tropics of Nizamabad

P. Latha, B. Vidya Vardhini

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/21617

The effect of Brassinolide (BL) sprayed in three concentrations viz., 0.5 mM, 1.0 mM and 2.0 mM on the shoot growth, root growth and foliar growth (plant fresh weight, leaves per plant and leaf area) of mustard plants grown in the semi-arid tropics of Nizamabad was studied. The soil in Nizamabad district is saline land black soil wherein the plants usually experience drought and saline stresses. All the three concentrations of BL stimulated the shoot growth, root growth as well as the foliar growth of mustard plants. BL at 0.5µM was found most effective in increasing the shoot and root growth. The promotion of shoot, root and foliar growth is an indicator that BL mitigated the negative effect of the semi-arid conditions of the soil.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Foliar Selenium Application to Improve the Tolerance of Eggplant Grown under Salt Stress Conditions

M. A. Abul-Soud, Shaimaa H. Abd-Elrahman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/19992

Sea level rise is one of the most risky climate change impacts under Egyptian conditions to increase the salinity of northern Delta. Increasing the tolerance for salinity in current and future crops is strongly desirable. The current experiment was carried out in the experimental station at Agriculture Research Centre, Egypt, during the summer seasons of 2014 and 2015, to evaluate the effect of selenium foliar applications (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 µM Na2SeO3) on eggplant grown on a sandy soil and irrigated with different concentrations of saline water (0, 30, 60, 120 mM NaCl). The results showed that the Se supplement with 20 µM showed the best effects on vegetative growth and yield of eggplants under different salinity levels of irrigation water. Increasing salinity resulted in increasing N and P contents in the leaves and fruits of eggplant, but K decreased as a result of some sort of antagonism with Na; in spite of that, N, P and K contents in leaves and fruits increased with increasing Se supplements up to 20 µM to be at higher concentrations then decreased. Regarding K/Na ratio in leaves, the treatment of EC13.5 dS m-1 without Se supplements gave the lowest value (0.52); treatment of Se 30 µM under 0 mM NaCl irrigation water gave the highest one (1.71). Also, chlorophyll contents in plant leaves increased with increasing salinity level of irrigation water, but decreased with increasing Se supplements. Regarding the proline contents in fresh leaves, the treatment of EC13.5 dS m-1 without Se supplements gave the highest value (51 mg   g-1), but the lowest one (30.9 mg g-1) was observed with control treatment.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Genetic Variability and Character Association of Aromatic Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars

Most. Fatema Kaosar Mishu, Md. Waliur Rahman, Mohammad Abul Kalam Azad, Bhabendra Kumar Biswas, Md. Aminul Islam Talukder, Md. Omar Kayess, Md. Rafiqul Islam, Md. Rakibul Alam

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/22006

An experiment was conducted to evaluate correlation between some traits and yield components of six aromatic rice varieties and also to determine the most effective factors on its yield. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications. Among six variteits Badshabhog was the topmost yielder followed by Kataribhog, Chinigura, and Radhunipagal, Begunbichi and Kalozira. Analysis of variability parameters revealed that the phenotypic coefficients of variation were higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for all the characters studied. The spikelets panicle-1 and 1000-grain weight showed high heritability and effective tillers hill-1 showed low heritability. Yield has positive significant correlation with days to maturity, spikelet length and 1000-grain weight. Negative significant correlation found with plant height and sterility percentage and non-significant correlation with other characters.