Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Ameliorative Phosphorus Fertilization on Soil, Maize and Wheat Status

Besim Salkic, Meho Majdancic, Vlado Kovacevic, Dario Iljkic, Rezica Sudar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/24065

Acid reaction and nutritional imbalances, mainly low levels of plant available phosphorus (P) are often limiting factors of soil fertility in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). The aim of this study was testing the impact of ameliorative P fertilization on soil properties and status of maize and wheat on acid soil (pH in 1n KCl: 4.0) of Tuzla Canton in B&H.

The experiment of increasing rates of P fertilization has been started in spring of 2013. The experiment was conducted by randomized complete block design in four replicates (basic plot 63 m2 ). Monoammonium phosphate (12% N + 52% P2O5) was added to standard fertilization (kg ha-1: 150 N + 50 P2O5 + 50 K2O) in amounts as follows (P2O5 kg ha-1):  75, 475, 875, 1275 and 1675. In the next two years only standard fertilization was applied for crop rotation maize (2013) – maize (2014: crop was complete damaged by flood) – winter wheat (2014/2015).

By increasing P rates the contents of mobile P were increased from 7.66 mg P2O5 100 g-1 to  20.10 mg P2O5100 g-1 or 2.6 times. Also, maize yields were considerably increased up to 17%. (6.68 and 7.82 t ha-1, for control and the highest rate of applied P, respectively). Yield of wheat was significantly increased by P fertilization up to 14% (4.35 and 5.02 t ha-1, for control and the highest P rate respectively). However, for significant improvement of baking quality parameters (protein, wet gluten and sedimentation) the lowest P rate in level 475 kg P ha-1 was sufficient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Phosphorus and Boron Application on the Nutrient Contents of Grain and Stover of Mungbean

B. A. Hamza, M. A. K. Chowdhury, M. M. Rob, I. Miah, M. Z. Rahman, U. Habiba

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/23559

A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during the period from February 2012 to May 2012 to investigate the effect of four different doses of phosphorus (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1 ) and boron (0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg ha-1) on nutrient content of summer mungbean cv. BINAmung-8. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with sixteen treatment combinations having three replications. The contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S influenced significantly due to different treatments. The uptakes of N, P, K, S, Ca and Mg in grain and stover were expressively affected due to different treatments. In grain, combination of 60 kg P ha-1 × 2.0 kg B ha-1gave the maximum contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S. The highest content of P, K, Ca, Mg and S in stover was obtained in the combination of 60 kg P ha-1 × 2.0 kg B ha-1 and N content in stover was not significant. The results suggest that mungbean crop may preferably be fertilized with a combination of 60 kg P ha-1 × 2.0 kg B ha-1to obtain better quality of BINAmung-8 in the agroclimatic condition of the study area.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Evaluation of Four Exotic Tropical Varieties of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) in Two Agro-environments in Nigeria

M. A. N. Anikwe, J. C. Agu, E. E. Ikenganyia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/23298

The research was conducted to evaluate the agronomic performance of five tropical varieties of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) in two agro-environments (Agbani and Iwollo) during the 2013 and 2014 planting season in Enugu State, Southeastern Nigeria. The experiment comprises of five varieties of watermelon namely; New Dragon, Empire, Dark Belle, Koloss and Kaolack (control) which was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications Results from the study showed that there was no significant (p > 0.05) differences in leaf area index at Agbani site for the two seasons at 30 and 60 days after planting. Dark Belle had the highest fruit weight at harvest in Agbani site with 13.04 t ha-1 and 8.08 t ha-1 in 2013 and 2014 planting seasons, respectively, while Iwollo site produced a fruit yield of 1.75 t ha-1 (2013) and 0.81 t ha-1 (2014). Dark Belle, Koloss and Kaolack are recommended for Agbani soils and soils under similar conditions and location. Dark Belle is identified as the best adapted variety of watermelon for Agbani and Iwollo soils and locations of Enugu State. However, Iwollo soils and soils under similar conditions and location may not be good for commercial watermelon production during the rainy seasons.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Studies on Fruit Lignification Time Interval and Phenological Traits of Selected Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench) Genotypes Grown in Southern Nigeria

Godwin Michael Ubi, Maria Bisong Onabe, Ubi William, Julie Omaghomi Jemide, Imaobong Sunday Essien

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/23514

Aims: To determine the time interval between fruit formation and lignification (hardening of fruits) and phonological traits in three short, early maturing and three tall, late maturing genotypes of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench) grown in southern Nigeria.

Study Design: Two separate experiments for the dwarf early maturing and tall late maturing genotypes were laid out in a randomized complete block design with five replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Calabar rainforest agro-ecology in 2014 and 2015 vegetables growing seasons.

Methodology: Fruit lignification time interval was determine using the direct time measurement using stop watch and observation of the time interval between fruit formation to time of hardening (Lignification). Data for phenological traits were generated from direct measurements using appropriate tools and observations of okra plants in the field.

Results: Results showed that the tall, late maturing okra genotypes required longer time interval to become lignified compared to the dwarf, early maturing genotypes throughout the period of study.  Results of time interval measurement showed that significant (p<0.05) differences were detected among genotypes. A time interval of 142±4.50 hours was required for fruit lignification in Perkins long pod, while ‘Etighi idok’ and ‘Okpo-mbontam’ genotypes required 124±3.40 and 96±5.15 hours respectively to become lignified. The dwarf, early maturing genotypes, NHAe-47-4 fruits become lignified after 124±3.45 hours, ‘Asaka awum’ fruits required 121±4.20 hours while Agwu early took 78±3.25 hours to become unusable in fresh conditions. Results of phenological traits of Okra genotypes also revealed that the tall, late maturing genotypes had more branches per plant, more fruits per plant, longer fruiting period and longer days to flower and fruiting initiation compared to the dwarf, early maturing genotypes.

Conclusion: Knowledge of fruit lignification time interval in Okra will no doubt reduce the laborious task of daily handpicking of immature fruits, reduce the rate of spoilage of the vegetable, enable for the consumption of fresh rather than dried okra and for plan and controlled harvesting of fruits for the market, income and food security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aspects of Water Relations and Gas Exchange of Katsura and Tilia Seedlings Subjected to Wet-Dry Cycles: Indication of Strategies for Whole Plant Drought Tolerance

K. H. Haeberle, S. O. Agele, R. Matyssek, M. Hennlich

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/17154

This paper reports the effects of progressive drought and wet-dry cycles on water relations, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic carbon fixation of seedlings of two tree species adapted to temperate climate Cercidiphyllum japonicum, Sieb. & Zucc. (Katsura: Cerci) and Tilia cordata (Tilia) in the climate chamber of the Institute of Ecophysiology of Plants, Technical University, Munich (TUM), Freising, Germany. The watering regimes were applied in phases to simulate either well watered /hydration conditions, dry down/single drought phase and multiple/intermittent wet-dry cycle. The control plants were maintained under well-watered conditions dry-wet cycles (drought-rehydration phases) in phases. Plants in the multiple-drought treatment were subjected to two dry-wet phases while plants in the single-drought treatment were exposed to an initial drought phase followed by one hydration phase. In both Cercidiphyllum japonicum and Tilia cordata, drought induced leaf abscission and recovery (regrowth) were observed towards the end of the experiment. However, against expectation, although Cerci exhibited drought induced leaf abscission, but its water potential was kept below values obtained for Tilia. After relief from drought (post drought rewatering), leaf water potential and stomatal gas exchange recovered in magnitudes close to those of well watered control plants. As a result of increasing dehydration, water potential in Tilia declined sharply and one of the plants died off. It appeared that the magnitude of soil drought imposed was sufficient to initiate hydraulic failure in Tilia, an observation that can be attributed to a vulnerability to embolism. The water consumption measured via evaporative flux/weighing method and sap flow sensors), was higher for Katsura while its leaf water potential declined far more in Cerci relative to Tilia without causing noticeable damage. The respective pre-dawn and midday leaf water potentials were: Tilia (-0.88; -0.1250 MPa) and Cerci (-0.85; -0.104 MPa). It is concluded that both Katsura and Tilia are drought avoiders that abscise leaves to reduce transpirational water loss. The species are capable of regrowth and recovery of physiological functions after relief from drought, In order to maintain the greatest ornamental value in the landscape. Katsura and Tilia should be planted in areas that are not prone to drought.

 

Open Access Review Article

Lessons from Long-term Nutrient Management Adoptions in Semi-arid Tropical Alfisol

D. B alachandar, C. Chinnadurai, S. M. Tamilselvi, K. Ilamurugu, K. Arulmozhiselvan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/24014

Understanding the consequences of adoption of long-term nutrient managements on the fluctuation of soil biological variables is of greater importance in relation to nutrient supplying capacity of the ecosystem and crop requirement. The knowledge of linkage between nutrient management strategies and the soil microbiome and biochemical processes would be useful for soil health sustainability. The results from comprehensive study made on a field experiment comparing the long-term (more than 100 years) effects of organic manures and inorganic chemical fertilizers on soil biological and biochemical properties are reviewed. The soils adopted with three nutrient managements viz., no fertilization (control), inorganic chemical fertilizers (IC) and organic amendments (OM) obtained from long-term fertilizer experiment were assessed for physical, chemical, microbiological and biochemical properties in three successive years. The response of most of the assessed soil variables including soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, humic and fulvic acid fractions, population of different functional bacterial communities, eubacterial community diversity and enzymes’ activity to long-term organic nutrient management was significantly higher than those from inorganic fertilization and control (OM > IC = control). The biological properties and enzymes activity of the soil was unaffected due to long-term use of inorganic chemical fertilizers, as those were on par with control. The culture-independent molecular approaches also revealed that the organic manures encourage the overall biodiversity of eubacteria and to be specific, favour to some of the eubacterial phyla viz., Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria. The functionality of total soil microbiome assessed through respiration indices implies that the metabolic quotient was unaffected due to nutrient management, while OM had highest substrate induced respiration rate compared to IC and control. The principal component analysis of assessed soil variables clearly discriminated the OM from IC and control. The evidence from these observations shows that addition of organic manures is vital to enhance the abundance, diversity and functionality of microbiome of soil and thereby the fertility sustainability. However, it is also observed in our investigations that adoption of balanced inorganic chemical fertilization, which provides instant nutrients to the crop plants, had no harm to the microbial diversity and functionality as well as the soil processes including respiration and enzymes functioning.