Open Access Short communication

Characterization of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Peruvian Highlands Native Crops

Katty Ogata-Gutiérrez, Débora Alvarado, Carolina Chumpitaz-Segovia, Doris Zúñiga-Dávila

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/24573

Over the past few decades, research in agricultural microbiology has highlighted the efficacy of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in inducing seedling emergence, promoting the increase in plant height, weight and overall crop yield. A number of microbial isolates have shown promising antagonistic activity against several soilborne pathogens. In this study, twelve bacterial strains were isolated from root rhizosphere of Peruvian native highlands crops, i.e Goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.), Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and Maca (Lepidum meyenii Walp.). The strains were identified using 16S rRNA gene PCR amplification and sequencing and were characterized for their PGPR activities. Among these isolates, all strains were found to be able to produce indol-acetic acid, two strains were able to solubilize hydroxyapatite, bi- and tri-calcium phosphate and the remaining others were able to solubilize at least one source of inorganic phosphate. Of 12 isolates, 10 strains showed antagonistic activity against Fusarium solani, 5 showed activity against Alternaria alternata and 9 inhibited growth of Curvularia lunata. It was also found that out of 12 isolates, three were able to induce tomato seedling emergence by 75% compared to the control in in-vitro assays. 16S rRNA gene sequence based analysis of these strains confirmed that, of 12 strains, 4 were members of genus Pseudomonas, 3 belong to genus Bacillus, 2 were related to genus Rahnella and 1 each belong to the genus Stenotrophomonas, Serratia and Streptomyces.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Lead Induced Oxidative Stress and Development Change on Coriandrum sativum

S. Saadi, O. Kharoubi, N. Bennaama, H. Kazouz, A. Aoues, M. Slimani

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/18589

Lead (Pb) is ubiquitous pollutant in environment which causes many toxic effects, at high and low dose, Lead makes disruptions at all plants by reduction its growth and development of aerial parts and roots, however in Coriandrum the mechanism it not well known. In this study, assessing the capacity of lead to induce a dysfunctioning in development of roots and aerial parts at different concentrations after 21 day and 40 days, biochemical parameters of oxidative stress and morphological change on Coriandrum sativum was studied in the present investigation. The seeds were sprayed with a solution containing lead to different concentrations for 40 days with six lead levels (0 as control, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 mg.l-1). The soil used was characterized and parameters such as growth, oxidative damage markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, chlorophyll and hydrogen peroxide contents) were investigated. The results show that there is no change in properties of roots, sheets and stalks indicate that chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration were significantly decreased at 3000 mg.l-1 Pb than control. Lipid peroxidation and H2O2levels were increased at the dose of 2500 and 3000 mg l-1 compared to control treatment; no difference was noted between 500 mg.l-1 and control in all part in plant. Morphological studies show that the group exposed to 3000 mg.l-1 of lead shows a very important development of the tissues of roots and stems compared to control and to the group exposed to 500 mg.l-1 of Pb. changes in morphological structure and non-enzymatic antioxidants have shown that lead exposure causes a significant perturbation on Coriandrum sativum Linn seedlings affecting biochemical and physiological processes.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Anatomical, Proximate, Vitamin and Mineral Studies on Piper guineense (Piperaceae)

C. V. Ilodibia, A. J. Chukwu, E. E. Akachukwu, R. N. A dimonyemma, N. A. Igbo abuchi, C. A. Ezeabara

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/25385

Anatomical, proximate, vitamin and mineral studies were carried out on the leaf, petiole, stem and root of Piper guineense using standard techniques. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed for data analysis. Anatomical result revealed similar features in their epidermis and cortex and differences in their vascular bundles arrangement. Moisture was highest in the stem (16.91±0.00%), crude protein and Fat were highest in the leaf (16.41±0.10% and 9.43±0.01% respectively) crude fibre and Ash were highest in the root (5.91±0.06% and 10.30±0.63% respectively). Vitamin A and vitamin C, phosphorus, zinc and iron were highest in the leaf (66.24±0.04 µg/g, 201.05±0.00 mg/100 g, 34.13±0.22 mg / 100 g, 0.45±0.00 mg / 100 g and 14.62±0.01 mg / 100 g respectively. The work has demonstrated that the plant is really a power house of nutrients. Apart from the leaf eaten by our people, other parts of the plant could also be used as food to supplement our daily nutrient needs, animal feed and in the manufacture of drugs. Also the anatomical result is an additional aid to the taxonomic characterization of the plant.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Some Organic and Bio Fertilization Treatments in Presence of Chemical Fertilization on Growth, Chemical Composition and Productivity of Cantaloupe Plants

M. H. M. Mohamed, Maha Mohamed Elsayed Ali

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/25514

Two field experiments were carried out during two successive seasons of 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 in a sandy soil at a private Sector Farm in El-Khatatba region, Minofia Governorate, Egypt to study the effect of some fertilization treatments (organic and biofertilizers) in presence of chemical fertilizer on growth, chemical composition, productivity and fruit quality of cantaloupe plants (Cucumis melo L.) cv. Gal 152. The experiment consisted of nine treatments as follows: T1: Control (recommended dose of chemical fertilizer: Rd), T2: Rd + 23.8 ton/ha compost + compost tea + biofertilizers, T3: Rd + 47.6 ton/ha compost + compost tea+ biofertilizers, T4: Rd + 23.8 ton compost + humic acid + biofertilizers, T5: Rd + 47.6 ton/ha compost + humic acid + biofertilizers, T6: Rd + 23.8 ton/ha compost + compost tea + EM, T7: Rd + 47.6 ton/ha compost + compost tea + EM, T8: Rd + 23.8 ton/ha compost + humic acid + EM and T9: Rd + 47.6 ton/ha compost + humic acid + EM. The vegetative growth parameters of cantaloupe plant as plant height, number of branches/plant, fresh and dry weights of plant as well as leaf area increased by all fertilizer application treatments when compared with the control treatment (recommended dose of chemical fertilizer (T1)) in the two seasons. Moreover, yield parameters of cantaloupe plant i.e., fruit diameter, fruit circumference, fruit fresh weight and total yield were increased greatly when compared with the control treatment in the two seasons. The highest cantaloupe yield was observed in T5, followed by T9 in the two seasons. Furthermore, all tested fertilizers treatments increased chemical composition parameters of cantaloupe leaves (total chlorophylls, total carbohydrates, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn) as compared with the control treatment in the two seasons. In addition, fruit quality parameters of cantaloupe plant as affected by some fertilizer treatments are improved by all studied fertilizer treatments as compared with the control treatment in the two seasons.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plant Growth Regulators and Their Time of Application on Yield Attributes and Quality of Soybean

Sonia Khatun, Tuhin Suvra Roy, Md. Nazmul Haque, Badshah Alamgir

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/25981

Plant growth regulators play important roles in plant growth and development, but little is known about the roles of plant growth regulators in yield components and seed qualities of soybean. In this study, salicylic acid, gibberellic acid (GA3), kinetin and distilled water (control) were sprayed to soybean (BARI Soybean-6) at the vegetative stage, flower initiation stage, pod initiation stage, flower + pod initiation stage in the pot experiment under field condition during November, 2013 to March, 2014. Treatments were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five replications. The different plant growth regulators and their time of application showed significant effect on number of pods plant-1, pod length, number of seeds pod-1, 100-seed weight, stover yield, biological yield, harvest index, seed grading (% by weight), protein and moisture content in seed of soybean. Salicylic acid gave the highest number of seeds pod-1, harvest index, small size seed, protein and moisture content in seed (1.60, 39.06%, 19.47%, 44.56% and 12.91%, respectively). Kinetin spray produced the maximum 100-seed weight (11.58 g). Application of growth regulators at vegetative stage produced the highest stover yield (6.46 g plant-1), flower initiation stage gave the larger size seed (59.09%), pod initiation stage showed the maximum pod length (2.43 cm), highest moisture content in seed (13.50%) and spray at flower + pod initiation stage produced the maximum 100-seed weight (12.00 g), harvest index (43.42%), medium size seed (32.53%), protein content in seed (44.31%). Among the treatment combinations the application of salicylic acid at flower and pod initiation stage showed the highest yield attributes and maximum protein content compared to those of other growth regulators.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamics of Soil Carbon, Nitrogen and Soil Respiration in Farmer’s Field with Conservation Agriculture, Siem Reap, Cambodia

Don Immanuel A. Edralin, Gilbert C. Sigua, Manuel R. Reyes

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/25339

The years of intensive tillage in many countries, including Cambodia have caused significant decline in agriculture’s natural resources that could threaten the future of agricultural production and sustainability worldwide. Long-term tillage system and site-specific crop management can affect changes in soil properties and processes, so there is a critical need for a better and comprehensive process-level understanding of differential effects of tillage systems and crop management on the direction and magnitude of changes in soil carbon storage and other soil properties. A study was conducted in farmer’s field to evaluate the effect of conservation agriculture (CA) and conventional tillage (CT) on soil carbon, nitrogen and soil respiration in three villages of Siem Reap, Cambodia. Soil organic carbon (p≤0.01), soil total nitrogen (p≤0.01) and soil respiration (p≤0.10) for at least in two villages were significantly affected by tillage management. The soil quality was improved in villages with CA compared with villages with CT by increasing soil organic carbon (10.2 to 13.3 Mg ha-1) and soil nitrogen (0.87 to 1.11 Mg ha-1) because of much higher soil moisture (15.7±8.6 to 20.0±11.9%) retained in CA and with reduced soil temperature (30.4±2.0 to 32.4±2.3°C) during the dry period. Additionally, field soil respiration was higher in CA (55.9±4.8 kg CO2-C ha-1 day-1) than in CT (36.2±13.5 kg CO2-C ha-1 day-1), which indicates more microbial activity and increased mineralization of soil organic carbon for nutrient release. The soil’s functions of supporting plant growth and sink of carbon and recycler of nutrients was likely improved in agroecosystem with CA than in system with CT. Our results have suggested that CA may have had enhanced soils’ carbon and nitrogen contents, nutrient supplying capacity and microclimate for soil microorganisms in three villages with vegetable production.