Open Access Original Research Article

Variability in Some Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Shambat Farm, Khartoum- Sudan

Albashir A. S. Ali, Xing Wen-Gang, Moamer A. A. Mohammed, Bashir H. Osman, Mohammed M. A. Elbashier, Alnail Mohmmed

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/26275

An experiment was conducted on the farm of the Faculty of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of Science and Technology, this soil belongs to the Central Clay Plain of the Sudan which has been formed by alluvial deposit of the Nile, primarily of basaltic origin, and it consider largely as Vertisols. The objective of this study is to evaluate the variability in some physical and Chemical properties of soil under investigation in order to identify their spatial distribution to assist in designing land management and support agricultural production. For these purposes, some physical and Chemical properties at five sites across the farm have been investigated. The results indicated that the soils are variably affected by saline and sodic conditions. Non-saline, slightly saline, moderately saline sub soil and non-sodic to moderately sodic soils are found on the farm. Soil texture is clayey throughout, and hydraulic conductivity is very slow to slow .The whole of soil profile is compacted except at the surface layer, the average of soil bulk density is very high when the soil is dry. The soils under investigation are characterized by high water retention but rather narrow range of available moisture as noticed from the difference between the moisture retained between field capacity and wilting point.


Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Chemical Properties and Interactive Effect of Livestock Manure and Variety on Growth, Yield, Seed Nutritional and Proximate Compositions of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Y. I. Bulu, O. Kekere, B. G. Olabokund

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/25877

Unavailability and escalating cost of fertilizer coupled with the need to safeguard the environment has called for the use of local nutrient resources for soil fertility management. A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of manure from different livestock dungs on soil chemical properties as well as the interaction effect of variety and manures on growth, yield, as well as seed nutritional and proximate composition of tah-erect and tah-creeping varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Plants were grown in soil amended with poultry dung (PD), cow dung (CD) and goat dung (GD) while the treatment with no dung (ND) served as the control. The experiment was laid out in complete randomized design with 5 single plant replicates per treatment. Results showed that livestock manure generally enhanced the nutrient content of the soil compared to the control. Soil amended with PD contained the highest N, P. K, Ca, Mg and Na followed by CD, and then GD. Organic content was highest under CD followed by GD and least in PD. Heavy metals including Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were higher under CD than in GD and PD. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in number of leaves, number of branches, shoot length and stem girth among the treatments in both varieties, where PD followed by CD displayed superiority over GD, which was however better than the control. PD led to the highest number of seeds, seed fresh and dry weights in both varieties as compared to CD and GD, which were better than the ND where the least values were recorded. Seed N, P, K, Mg and Ca were increased in both varieties by livestock manure applications. Except the carbohydrate content that was unaffected, proximate parameters including protein, fat, crude fibre, percentage ash and moisture content in the seeds of the two varieties were higher in plants grown in manure-treated soil than in the control. Livestock manure enhanced availability of nutrients in soil for increased vegetative growth and seed yield, as well as seed nutritional and proximate values in the two varieties of Arachis hypogaea.


Open Access Original Research Article

Intercharacter Correlation between Budding Success in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. and Seven Weather Characters

K. O. Omokhafe, O. A. Emuedo, E. A. Imoren

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/26227

Aim: To evaluate the relationship between budding success and weather factors.

Place and Duration of Study: Nursery site of the Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Benin City, Nigeria for three years.

Methodology: Seven weather characters were evaluated for correlation with budding success in Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Benin City, Nigeria. The seven weather characters were rainfall, relative humidity (RH) at 0900 hrs and 1500 hrs, minimum and maximum temperature, evaporation and radiation. Budding was carried out in the rootstock nursery and data on budding success was recorded over a period of six months for three consecutive years. Data for the corresponding six months was collated and for three years. Intercharacter correlation was calculated for budding success and the seven weather characters. The t-test was applied to test significance of the correlation coefficients.

Results: There was positive correlation between budding success and relative humidity at 0.74 to 0.82, while correlation between budding success was negatively correlated with evaporation at -0.83 to -0.88. Correlation between budding success and radiation was also negative at -0.77. Each significant weather character was significant in correlation with temperature. In this case, relative humidity was negatively correlated with temperature at -0.79 to –0.99. Correlation between evaporation and temperature was positive at 0.81 to 0.98 and radiation had significant positive correlation with temperature at 0.81 to 0.98.

Conclusion: The significant correlation coefficients between budding success and three weather characters suggest influence of climate change on budding success for production of planting materials of Hevea brasiliensis. This is an indication of appropriate location considerations for nursery facilities in order to enhance budding success. Path analysis to detect direct and indirect effects of the significant weather factors on budding success will be evaluated in further study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Asexual Propagation of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) on Biomass Yield, Nutritional Composition and In-sacco DM Degradability

Khan Shahidul Huque, Muhammad Khairul Bashar, Nathu Ram Sarker, Biplob Kumer Roy, Nazmul Huda, Harinder P. S. Makkar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/26103

Aims: The aims of this study were undertaken with the objectives to determine asexual propagation of moringa plant using branch cuttings of different maturities indicated by the cutting  diameter of A) 3-5 cm, B) 6-8 cm or C) 10-12 cm on biomass yield, nutritional composition and In-sacco DM degradability.

Study Design: The design of the study is completely randomized design (CRD).

Place and Duration of Study: The agronomical trial was conducted at Pachutia fodder plot of the Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI) from June, 2014 to May, 2015.

Methodology: Twelve (12) plots each area with 800 x100 cm2 were prepared with basal dose of fertilizer (kg) of cow dung, urea, Tipple Super Phosphate(TSP) and Murat of Potash(MP)  (27000:90:30:15), and branch cuts were planted at a space of 30x30 cm randomly replicating each type of cut into four (4) different plots. The experimental data on survivability (%), no. of prunes per cut, yield of different botanical fractions of moringa foliage, chemical composition and In-sacco DM degradability were recorded.

Results: The survivability (72.4%) or the number of prunes/cut (4.55) of 10-12 cm branch cut were significantly (= .001) higher than that of the branch cuts with 3-5 cm (5.62% & 1.92, respectively) or 6-8 cm diameter (8.41% & 2.70, respectively). The fresh and dry matter yield (ton ha-1 yr-1) of total foliage, stem and leaf were significantly (P=0.001) higher at 10-12 cm branch diameter followed by 6-8 cm and 3-5 cm branch diameters, respectively. Effect of leaf to stem ratio was not significant among the treatments. Crude Protein (CP) content of all fraction of different cuts did not vary (P=0.193) significantly. The acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) of total foliage was lower in 10-12 cm branch diameter compared to other diameters. It was observed that, the ADF: CP ratio (2.0 to 2.5) was appropriate for effective DM degradability (%) which was 53.0-54.0%.

Conclusion: Both yields and chemical composition of moringa foliage suggested that 10-12 cm branch diameter used for asexual propagation and could be a potential protein source for ruminants livestock.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phosphorus Relationships in Water- logged Soils of Southern Nigeria as Influenced by Aluminum and Manganese Toxicity

William Ubi, Godwin Michael Ubi, Ackley Ufot Akpan-Idiok, Majesty-Nyenoke Eteng Okri, Imaobong Sunday Essie

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/25676

Aim: To determine the phosphorus relationships in mangrove swamp with particular reference to Al and Mn contents in acid sulphate soils.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Mbiabet in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, in 2014 and 2015, respectively.

Methodology: Soil samples were collected in the order of 0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-10, and 10-15 cm in depths. Treatments consisted of potassium di-hydrogen phosphate added to the swamp mud, cat-clay, and mud-clay in equal doses of 244 kg/ha P2O5, fitted into Latin square of 36x5 m swamp, except for the control plot. Limestone (CaCO3) was applied to both fertilized and unfertilized plots at the rate of 50 kg/ha to reduce the activity of aluminum.

Results: The results showed that phosphorus in the unfertilized local acid sulphate soils was largely in the organic and occluded forms. It is apparent that the bulk of the phosphate in the fresh mud was held within 2 cm of the mud surface, where 54-70% of the total phosphorus present was in organic and occluded forms, and remainder chiefly in association with Mn and Al. In spite of the fact that both organic and occluded phosphorus decreased in amount with soil profile depth, 94-97% of the total phosphorus present is in these forms at depths greater than 2 cm from surface mud. It was also found that the mud-clay had relatively high extractable manganese content of 7,501 cmolkg/ha and 8,591 cmolkg/ha of aluminum. Unlike the cat-clay, the exchange between aluminum-bound phosphorus and manganese and calcium – bound phosphorus was masked by the occlusion of inorganic forms on drying through the formation of manganese oxide films on the surface of the sulphate particles. Occluded phosphate increased in quantity and in the mud-clay the net loss to the occluded fraction amounted to 235 mg/kg. Difference between the behavior of the unfertilized and fertilized pond – mud on drying, suggests that the amount of phosphate occluded may be insufficient to mask the exchange reactions, if sufficiently large amounts of phosphate are present to combine with the extractable manganese. All the extractable aluminum and manganese were available to fix phosphorus. The precipitation of Al by excess P was quantitative at pH 5.0-5.5. The results are discussed in light of phosphorus relationships in mangrove swamp with particular reference to aluminum and manganese toxicity.

Conclusion: The addition of acidic phosphate in the soil aggravated manganese toxicity levels, and the use of non-aluminum phosphate showed greater effect on Mn toxicity. In screening plants for Al-toxicity, some important factors to consider include soil pH, Al, P, and Ca levels of the soil. Tolerance of plants to Al-toxicity, could be enhanced by high Ca than low Ca. Al-toxicity may probably be more important than Mn-toxicity but because some areas may contain toxic levels of both Al and Mn and rice plant tolerance to the two factors may not necessary coincide, it may be necessary to develop genotypes with high tolerance. Both Al and Mn toxicity are important growth limiting factors in plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Water Conservation Methods Affected Growth of Sorghum Intercropped with Cowpea in Different Locations of Western Sudan

Rahamt alla Mahgoub Abu Elgasim, Samia Osman Yagoub, Mohammed Ahmed Bushara

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/18340

Place and Duration of Study: Farmers practice different cropping systems with different cultural practice to increase productivity and sustainability. Field experiments were conducted in two locations (Elfoula and Babanousa), Western Kordofan (Sudan), seasons 2011/ 2012 and 2012/ 2013.

Aim: To determine the effect of soil water conservations methods on vegetative growth of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) intercropped with cowpea (Vigna unguicualata (L.) Walp).

Study Design: The experimental design was split plot with three replications.

Methodology: The main plots were assigned for four soil conservation methods namely; Geria (main local method of plough used) (L1) and Geria with terrace (L2), animal plough (L3) and animal plough with terrace (L4). The sub plots was four sowing methods as follows: Sorghum mono crop (S1), Sorghum intercrop (S2), Cowpea intercrop (C1), Cowpea mono crop (C2). The parameters taken was plant height, stem diameter, leaf area index and dry weight for three 30, 45 and 60 days from sowing dates.

Results: Generally, the soil preparation with animal traction and terrace (L4) and sorghum mono crop and their interaction showed the highest plant height, stem diameter, leaf area index, and dry weight products followed with soil prepared with Geria and terrace for two locations and two seasons.