Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Advantage of Mucuna and Tithonia Residue Mulches for Improving Tropical Soil Fertility and Tomato Productivity

Christopher Ngosong, Priscilla M. Mfombep, Cyril A. Njume, Aaron S. Tening

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/28093

Results: Soil available P increased from 81.3 to 148.3 mg/kg across treatments, with the highest for mineral fertilizer that differed from the plant residues and control, followed by the plant residues that differed from control (Tukey’s HSD, P = .05). Soil exchangeable K increased from 1.3 to 1.9 cmol/kg across treatments, with the highest recorded for plant residues and mineral fertilizer compared to the control (Tukey’s HSD, P = .05), and correlated with treatments (r = 0.51, P = .05). Soil organic C increased from 2.3 to 2.7% across treatments, with the highest recorded for plant residues compared to mineral fertilizer and control (Tukey’s HSD, P = .05), and positively correlated with treatments (r = 0.75, P = .05). Soil pH increased from 4.7 to 5.8, with the highest for mineral fertilizer that differed from the control (Tukey’s HSD, P = .05), and correlated with the soil available P (r = 0.72, P = .05). Tomato yield increased from 9.5 to 13.5 t ha-1 with the highest recorded for sole Tithonia and Mucuna+Tithonia, followed by sole Mucuna and mineral fertilizer as compared to the control, and correlated with soil organic C (r = 0.71, P = .05) and exchangeable K (r = 0.67,       P = .05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Mungbean Seed Borne Disease Suppression by Chemical and Botanical Fungicides

Juel Datta, Eva Nousraat, Tareq Ahmed, Sujan Chandra Banik, Rakibul Hasan, Mahfuzul Haque

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27864

Effective disease management is essential for high quality and maximum production. We conducted this experiment to know the effects of different chemical and botanical fungicides to assess the prevalence of Cercospora spp. on mungbean seeds in vitro condition. The laboratory experiment was conducted in plant pathology laboratory, Department of Plant Pathology and Seed Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet. Mungbean seed samples were collected from five different places prior to the experiment. Five fungal pathogens viz. Aspergillus spp., Penecillium spp., Cercospora spp., Rhizopus spp. and Fusarium spp. were detected from the collected seed sample by Blotter test method. Pathogens were identifies by observing their growth characters on the incubated seeds under stereo-binocular microscope. Total seven different treatments were applied randomly in both conditions as seed treatment and spray solution. For treating seeds, 250 mg of each fungicide along with 100 g seeds was taken separately in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks. The combined treatment (T5: Bavistin 50 WP+Secure 600 WP) was found to be the most effective in controlling seed-borne fungi when used as a seed treating agent in vitro condition.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Cropping Systems, Lime Placement Methods and Rates on Sugarcane Yields and Quality under Acidified Soils of Kibos, Kenya

Jacob Omondi Omollo, Ernest Semu, John Msaky, Philip Owuor

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/28112

This field study was conducted to investigate whether appropriate lime placement methods, lime rates and intercropped sugarcane with soybeans leads to amelioration of soil Ph, hence, increased yields and quality of sugarcane for plant and ratoon one crop cycles. Cambisols of the study site at Kibos, Kisumu County are acidified due to long term use of acidifying fertilizers and continuous sugarcane monoculture. Acidified soils are a constraint to crop production due to imbalance in availability of essential plant nutrients. Appropriate cropping systems and liming are therefore advocated. The field experiment design was split - split plot in randomized complete block arrangements. The factors and respective levels: The main plots were two cropping systems namely, sugarcane monoculture and also intercropped sugarcane and soybeans. The sub – plots were three lime placement methods (lime broadcasted [L-BC], lime shallow banded, 0 – 15 cm [L-SB] and lime deep banded, 15 – 30 cm (L-DB] and the sub - sub plots ; lime rates (0, 1 and 2 t ha-1). Intercropped sugarcane led to high sugarcane yields than the sugarcane monoculture for plant crop cycle. No significant effect was observed for ratoon crop harvest. Lime use caused changes on sugarcane quality [pol % cane and commercial cane sugar] for plant crop and that lime placement method [lime shallow banded] gave the highest reading while the least was for sugarcane under lime broadcasted. It is therefore concluded that liming plays a limited role on the direct effect on sugarcane yield. Liming only plays a significant and direct role on amelioration of soil acidity and nutrient transformations. Liming should be integrated with other cropping and nutrient management strategies for increased yields.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cattle Manure and Calcium Ammonium Nitrogen on Growth and Leaf Yield of Local Cowpea Accessions in Coastal Kenya

M. J. Hutchinson, F. K. Muniu, J. Ambuko, M. Mwakangalu, A. W. Mwang’ombe, J. J. Okello, F. Olubayo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27699

Cowpea is one of the major food crops contributing to food security and poverty alleviation especially among women and resource-poor farmers in marginal areas in Kenya. The effect of different concentrations of cattle manure and inorganic nitrogen (Calcium ammonium nitrate, CAN) application on growth and fresh and dry leaf yields from single and multiple harvest of four local vegetable cowpea accessions, Mnyenze madamada, Sura mbaya, Katsetse and Usimpe mtu mdogo, was studied over two seasons at Mtwapa in coastal Kenya. The research was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications with treatments arranged in a factorial arrangement. Analysis of variance was carried out on the data using Genstat Statistical package and means were compared using LSD at 5% level of significance (P=.05). Application of cattle manure and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer CAN had no effect or slightly decreased root length and had no effect on the number of branches per plant irrespective of seasons. The application of organic and inorganic fertilizers increased plant height, canopy width and fresh and dry weights depending on the season. The plants planted during the second and drier second season had lower growth and yield attributes compared to those planted during the first season. Of significance was the significant yield increase from multiple harvests with indications of yield improvements from as low as 1.5-4.0 tons/ha to between 15-20 tons/ha. Calcium ammonium nitrate was more effective compared to cattle manure during the dry season compared to the wet season, when cattle manure significantly increased yields (P>.05). The four select local cowpea accessions responded positively to the organic and inorganic fertilizers over seasons and therefore have the capacity to address food security and income generation in marginal parts of Kenya.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of BAU-biofungicide and Selected Plant Extracts against Root-knot (Meloidogyne javanica) of Brinjal

Mst. Shahina Aktar, Md. Mobinul Islam, S. M. Emdadul Hassan, Sk. Md. Mobarak Hossain

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27518

Seven treatments viz. BAU-biofungicide (Trichoderma spp.), basak (Adhatoda vasica), mustard (Brassica campestris) oil-cake, mango (Mangifera indica) inflorescences, shaknote (Amaranthus viridis) and dholkalmi (Ipomoea fistulosa) leaf extracts (S) along with a control were tested against root-knot of brinjal caused by Meloidogyne javanica. The treatments were used as seed treatment, root dipping and soil drenching (7 days before) planting. Among the treatments, BAU-biofungicide and basak leaf extract gave superior results as they increased shoot and root length as well as fresh weight of shoot, root and yield correspondingly with the lowest galling incidence. BAU-biofungicide and basak leaf extract (S) also suppressed the population of eggs, L2 and adult female of M. javanica in brinjal. Negative correlations between gall number with shoot and root length, shoot and root weight of brinjal as well as positive correlations between gall number with eggs, Land adult female nematode under different treatments indicated the superior effect of the treatments expressed  in lower galling and the suppressive activities of the nematode.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Effects of Four Plant Extracts against Post Harvest Spoilage Fungi of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir)

C. A. Anukwuorji, Chukwuma Maureen Obianuju, R. O. Ezebo, C. L. Anuagasi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27718

This study investigated the effects of plant extract on fungal pathogens responsible for yam rot in storage. Among the eight fungal pathogens isolated from yams with symptoms of post-harvest rot, the inhibitory effects of four plant materials on four of these organisms (Fusarium solani, Aspergillus niger, Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus stolonifer) with the highest prevalence were examined. Phytochemicals test of these plant materials showed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, glycosides, saponin and tannins at different quantities. The pathogenicity test revealed that all the organisms tested were pathogenic on healthy yam tubers with Aspergillus niger being the most pathogenic. All the plant extracts inhibited the growth of the test organisms at varying degrees. The degree of inhibition was dependent on concentration of extract, extraction medium and the test organism. The highest inhibitory values were obtained from ethanol extracts of Moringa oleifera and Azadirachta indica at 7.5% and 10.0% concentration each, while Gongronema latifolium and Xylopia aethiopicum gave lower inhibitory values. This suggests that Moringa oleifera and Azadirachta indica are good bio killers and their biological active ingredients can be exploited for the control of yam rot.