Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Five Cowpea Varieties to Some Phytonematodes under Field Conditions

Joseph Adomako, Osei Kingsley, Yaw Danso, Asante John Sackey, Bismark Abugri, Frederick Kankam

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27943

Five cowpea varieties viz Asomdwe, Asetenapa, Hewale, Nhyira and Videza, were evaluated for their reaction to plant parasitic nematodes under natural infestation. Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, and Rotylenchulus reniformis were isolated from the rhizosphere of the cowpea varieties although each of the varieties reacted differently to these nematode species. The highest number of M. incognita was recovered from the rhizosphere of Asomdwe which was 83% higher than Asetenapa which recorded the least number of M. incognita. Similarly, there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between R. reniformis juveniles recovered from the rhizosphere of Hewale and all the other varieties. There was however no significant differences in the number of P. brachyurus recovered although Nhyira recorded the highest. Two of the nematode genera- Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus brachyurus were extracted from the roots of the various varieties with varied population densities. The highest grain yield was recorded in Hewale. It out yielded Nhyira, Videza, Asomdwe and Asetenapa by (58, 49.8, 41.5 and 11.9)% respectively.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Botanical and Chemical Fungicides to Control Foot and Root Rot of Chickpea

Tahmina Rahman Tanni, Juel Datta, Rakibul Hasan, Afsana Hossain, Mahfuzul Haque

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27918

Effective disease management is essential for high quality and maximum production. The experiment was conducted on the experimental field of Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet to evaluate the effects of different chemical and botanical fungicides in controlling foot and root rot disease of chickpea. Total 15 samples of chickpea seeds of variety BARI Chola-9 were collected from different locations in chickpea growing area. Seven different treatments were sprayed as suspension into the experimental plot as per treatment. The Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications followed to complete the experiment. The germination of chickpea was found maximum by treating seeds with Bavistin 70 WP (81%). The lowest (4%, 3.33% and 2.33%) seedling mortality rate were observed in plots where Bavistin 70 WP sprayed at 10, 20 and 30 days after sowing respectively. Similarly, the minimum disease severity (33.37%) and the highest yield (1600 kg/ha) were obtained by spraying Bavistin 70 WP at 1gram/liter with an increase of 52.38% grain yield. The findings of our experiment suggested that, Bavistin 70 WP could be use as an efficient fungicide to control foot and root rot of chickpea.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Barley Genotypes Differing in Zinc Efficiency When Grown in Various Soil Types

Behzad Sadeghzadeh, Noushin Sadeghzadeh, Ebrahim Sepehr

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27713

Plant genotypes differ in their zinc (Zn) uptake; and accumulation of Zn by genotypes could be affected by soil types. In pot experiments in 5 different soil types, Zn uptake of a barley landrace (Sahara = Zn-efficient) was compared with a bred barley cultivar (Clipper = Zn-inefficient) at three Zn treatments (0.0, 0.02 and 0.8 mg Zn/Kg soil). At 0.8 Zn treatment, Zn concentration and content in shoot (at different growth stages) and seed of Sahara were significantly higher than those of Clipper. Higher concentration of Zn in the youngest leaf blades was found in Sahara grown in all soil types. The results indicated that Sahara landrace was more efficient in absorbing Zn from different soils than Clipper cultivar. It can be concluded that different soil types did not affect shoot and seed Zn concentration and content of Sahara, and these traits can be used in the assessment of barley genotypes, and may be useful criteria in screening large populations in various regions with different soil types.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Development Response of Kale (Brassica oleracea var. Acephala L.) Seedlings to Different Commercial Growing Media

Otsoseng Oagile, Onica Ramalekane, Witness Mojeremane, Christinah Matsuane, Gabatshele M. Legwaila, Thembinkosi Mathowa

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/28556

The study was carried out at Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (BUAN) formerly Botswana College of Agriculture (BCA) under an 80% net shade house to evaluate the response of kale (Brassica oleracea var Acephala) to different commercial growing media comprising of cocopeat, hygromix and germination mix. The experiment was set up in a completely randomized design (CRD) with each treatment (medium) replicated four times. Growth parameters measured were: seedling emergence, plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and biomass (both fresh and dry masses). Plant height, leaf area, number of leaves and biomass (fresh and dry) from plants grown on hygromix and germination mix were significantly (P < .01) higher than those grown on cocopeat. The same trend was observed in relation to seedling emergence although hygromix performed better than the other growing media. The observations reported in this study suggest that the use of hygromix and germination mix enhanced production of kale seedlings compared to cocopeat with hygromix being the best.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Combining Ability of Inbred Lines of Maize (Zea mays) in Kiambu and Embu Counties, Kenya

J. M. Kariuki, F. M. Njoka, P. K. Leley, D. W. Manene

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27694

Despite the fact that virtually all households in Kenya grow maize, over 60% of them are net maize buyers because they do not produce enough for their consumption. This is due to both biotic and abiotic factors such as poor planting materials, diseases and unreliable weather among others. This study was conducted to select lines with good combining ability. The trials were conducted in 2012 at experimental stations of Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) Muguga South and Embu in Kiambu and Embu counties of Kenya respectively. The study was conducted with 18 inbred lines. The experiment was laid out in a 6 x 6 lattice incomplete randomized block design with two replications. In Embu inbred line POPA produced the best grain yields when crossed with MUL 541 and MUL 521. Its high grain yield was also witnessed in Muguga where on average its performance was superior to other inbred lines. Inbred line MUL 513 can further be evaluated for grain yield improvement with all the other inbred lines which had high grain yields. The best general combiners for grain yield were MUL 508, MUL 688, POP A, MUL 541, MUL 513 and MUL 114. POP A x MUL 541 produced the highest yield of 0.49 t/ha. Based on SCA estimates, the best cross combinations for plant height were MUL 508 x MUL 688, POP A x MUL541 and MUL513 x MUL114. For ear height best cross combinations were: MUL 508 x MUL 688, POP A x MUL 141, POP A x MUL 541 and MUL 513 x MUL 114. The best combinations for grain yield were MUL 508 x MUL 688, POP A x MUL 541 and MUL 513 x MUL 114. Crosses MUL508 x MUL 521, MUL 541 x MUL 508, and MUL 688 x MUL508 were good combinations for MSV disease resistance since in both research sites they had an MSV score of 1. For grain yield improvement on specific combining ability crosses MUL 508 x MUL 688, POP A x MUL 141, MUL 513 x MUL 114 and MUL 513 x CN244 can further be evaluated and eventually released to farmers as they indicated promising relationship with yield potential compared to other crosses. Crosses MUL 508 x MUL 516, POP A x MUL 141 and POP A x MUL 688 can further be evaluated for disease resistance. The results will be useful to breeders and farmers in selecting the potential parental materials for improvement in maize breeding programs.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Compost with Onion (Allium cepa) Waste and Cattle Manure as Substrate Component for Horticultural Seedlings

G. Pellejero, A. Miglierina, G. Aschkar, M. Turcato, R. Jiménez-Ballesta

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27347

In the agricultural North-Patagonian region of Argentina, more intensely different alternative substrates of organic origin have begun to be used, which can replace the use of peat to produce vegetable seedlings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the compost obtained from onion waste and cattle manure as a substrate component to produce vegetable seedlings. For a 2- year period (2010-2011), greenhouse trials were conducted. The employed substrates were SCo: commercial substrate, CCE: onion waste compost and cow manure, and M: CCE compost mixture (40%), SCo (40%) + agricultural Perlite (20%). Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was used as an indicator crop. Seeds were sown in germination trays, 128 (1) and 200 (2) cells. The experimental design was completely randomized. Substrates were characterized and measurements of leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight were taken during seedling growth. During both trial years, growth parameters were higher in the seedlings grown in trays with more cells. The seedlings grown in the commercial substrate and compost had the highest leaf area values. The mixture substrates produced the poorest growth, especially when a lower cell volume used. Use of the onion waste compost and cow manure as a substrate component for seedlings replaced the commercial product with satisfactory results, and reduced the use of a poorly available resource like peat.