Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Micronutrients on Growth and Yield of Rice

Most. Aysha Siddika, Md. Joinul Abedin Mian, Tahsina Sharmin Hoque, Md. Abu Hanif, Polash Chandra Ray

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/28707

Aims: To determine the effect of different micronutrients including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and boron (B) on growth and yield of rice (BRRI dhan29).

Study Design: The study was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the Soil Science Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the boro season of 2014-2015.

Methodology: There were altogether five treatment combinations viz. T1: Control (NPKS), T2: NPKS+Zn, T3: NPKS+Zn+Cu, T4: NPKS+Zn+Cu+Mn and T5: NPKS+Zn+Cu+Mn+B. The total number of unit plots was 15 and the size of unit plot was 5 m × 3 m. The doses of micronutrients were 1 kg Zn ha-1, 2 kg Cu ha-1, 3 kg Mn ha-1and 1 kg B ha-1.

Results: The grain and straw yield and the yield contributing characters like plant height, panicle length, number of effective tillers hill-1, grains panicle-1 and dry matter yield were significantly influenced by different treatments. The treatment T3 produced the tallest plant (44.67 cm, 61.00 cm, 72.07 cm and 92.13 cm at 30, 45, 60 DAT and at harvest respectively), highest number of tillers (10.80, 20.90, 21.67 and 18.40 at 30, 45, 60 DAT and at harvest respectively) and dry matter yield (2.04 g, 3.70 g, 8.16 g and 8.44 g at 30, 45, 60 DAT and at harvest respectively) over the other treatments. The highest panicle length (25.00 cm), number of filled grains per panicle (105.50), grains per panicle (128.50) and thousand grain weight (22.10 g) were also observed in treatment T3. The lowest values of all the parameters were obtained from control (T1). Grain yield (6.13 t ha-1) and straw yield (7.23 t ha-1) of boro rice were also highest due to treatment T3followed by T4, T2 and T5. Based on the overall results, treatment T3 was found to be the best combination of micronutrients along with NPK for obtaining maximum yield and quality of boro rice.

Conclusion: Application of Zn and Cu may be recommended for better performance of rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interception and Use of Solar Radiation in Mustard/ Grass Pea Intercropping

Mohammad Saidur Rhaman, M. A. Awal, Israt Jahan Shelley

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27936

Solar radiation is of prime importance as it drives primary growth processes of plants. However its use in mustard and grass pea association is not yet analyzed. Therefore, a study was conducted at the Bangladesh Agricultural University during the cropping season extended from November 2014 to March 2015 to assess whether the mustard and grass pea crops are compatible when they grow together as intercrops in terms of radiation interception and use along with growth and productivity performances.  Mustard was considered as a dominate crop and grass pea as an intercrop. The experiment comprised four treatments viz. sole mustard, sole grass pea, single row alternate intercropping (i.e. 1M:1G, where one row of mustard was grown followed by one row of grass pea), and double grass pea row intercropping (i.e. 1M:2G, where one row of mustard followed by two rows of grass pea). Both mustard and grass pea plants in sole cropping had higher leaf area index (LAI) and total dry matter (TDM) accumulation as compared to that at intercropping. Mustard grown with 1M:1G intercropping system showed higher LAI and TDM accumulation than those at the 1M:2G system however, opposite trend was found for grass pea. The combine intercrop canopy of 1M:2G showed higher radiation-use efficiency (RUE; 2.44 g MJ-1 PAR) followed by 1M:1G (2.29 g MJ-1 PAR) and sole mustard canopies (1.89 g MJ-1 PAR) whereas the sole grass pea stands showed minimum RUE (1.17 g MJ-1 PAR). Maximum grain yield of mustard (2.32 t ha-1) was harvested from sole cropping which was about 19 and 31% higher than that obtained from 1M:1G (1.87 t ha-1) and 1M:2G (1.60 t ha-1) intercropped mustard, respectively. Similarly, sole grass pea (1.45 t ha-1) produced about 32 and 3% higher seed yield as compared to single (0.99 t ha-1) and double row (1.41 t ha-1) intercropped grass pea, respectively. The 1M:1G and 1M:2G combined intercropping systems gave the highest land equivalent ratio (1.493 and 1.663) and area time equivalent ratio (1.313 and 1.507, respectively). In 1M:1G intercropping system, mustard exhibited higher competitive ratio over grass pea but in 1M:2G intercropping system grass pea significantly dominated over mustard. It can be concluded that the mustard and grass pea crops are compatible in their intercropping mixture and the performance of double row of grass pea alternatively grown with a single row of mustard is superior to their sole stands or single row intercropping system due to the improved utilization of solar radiation.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Unconventional Phosphorus Sources and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria on Fractions of Phosphorus in a Calcareous Soil Cultivated with Wheat Plants

Shaimaa Hassan Abd-Elrahman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/28375

A pot experiment was conducted at the experimental farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Egypt. To study the effect of recycling fish bone and bone meal as well as rock phosphate in a comparison with the ordinary superphosphate on the fractionation and availability of phosphorus in a calcareous soil. These treatments combined with or without adding specific bacteria. Wheat plants were grown under these treatments and their combinations to evaluate the residual effect of such treatments compared to the control (without any treatment) under different physiological stages of grown plants. Generally, the non-traditional phosphorus sources could succeed to substitute the ordinary superphosphate, as a source of phosphorus for soil and wheat plants, especially with addition of specific P-dissolving bacteria. The treatments of ½ OSP+FB and FB alone with adding P solubilizing bacteria were the best, which gave an acceptable results for the availability and fractions of P in the studied calcareous soil, more than giving a vigor plant growth compared with the other treatments. It means that recycling house wastes such as these unconventional P sources can replace with the traditional P sources without any contamination to the soil and growing plants with heavy elements, considering them environmentally friendly.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Changes Involved in the Use of Calcium Cyanamide as a Slow-release Nitrogen Fertilizer in Impatiens wallerana (Hook.f.)

A. S ala, T. Williams, V. Feuring, E. Giardina

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/29027

Root growth of bedding plants in small pots is usually restricted and evidently influenced by substrate quality and fertilization routine. Two pre-transplant 50- and 288-plug cells tray-1 were used. Plants were grown in two growing media and fertilized with liquid feeding and pre-transplant supply of calcium cyanamide (CC). CC-fertilized plants showed higher fresh-dry weight, glucose content and nitrogen content. The higher dry weight accumulation in CC-fertilized plants was supported by the increase in the relative rate of leaf area expansion (RLAE) and the increase in the rate of leaf appearance (RLA). The changes in leaf area were associated with increase in both leaf number and leaf size. CC-fertilized plants also showed a higher relative growth rate (RGR), mainly associated with higher net assimilation rates (NAR) and a change in photo assimilate partitioning that favoured shoots and specifically stems. From a grower’s point of view, the use of calcium cyanamide to fertilize I. wallerana plants in substitution of the traditional liquid fertilization system would increase crop productivity. Calcium cyanamide would be a better alternative than other coated products used as controlled-release fertilizer, especially under a global temperature increase or low environmental greenhouse facilities.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Importance of Leaf, Stem and Flower Stalk Anatomical Characters in the Identification of Emilia Cass

Ekeke Chimezie, Ogazie Chinedum Alozie, Mensah Stephen Ikechukwu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/28420

Three species of Emilia Cass. namely E. cocinea (Sims.) G. Don, E. sonchifolia (Linn.) DC and E. preatamissa Milne-Redhead were investigated using their petiole, stem, flower stalk, midrib and epidermal features. The specimens were pretreated, sectioned, stained in 1% Safranin O for two minutes, counter-stained with Alcian blue, mounted on a slide, observed under microscope and micro-photographed using Leica WILD MPS 52 microscope camera on Leitz Diaplan microscope. The results revealed that the variation in number of vascular bundle in the petiole, stem, flower stalk and midrib, stomata type, occurrence (on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces) and orientation (contiguous or in groups) constituted dependable diagnostic characters among the species studied. In this study for instance, the contiguous stomata is restricted E. cocinea. The dipolar contiguous stomata are found on the adaxial leaf surface while mono-polar, lateral and di-polar contiguous stomata were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Also, stomata in groups of 2, 3 or more were found on the leaf surfaces of the Emilia species. Among the species, E. sonchfolia and E. cocinea have stomata in groups of 2, 3 or more on both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces while E. preatamissa was distinct form these species by having stomata only in groups of 2 on the upper surface of the leaf. This also revealed that there are intraspecific and interspecific relationships among species.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dolomitic Lime and Muriate of Potash on Jelly Seed Disorder and Fruit Tissue Mineral Content in Mango (Mangifera indica L.)

Joseph Njuguna, Jane Ambuko, Margaret Hutchinson, Willis Owino

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/28652

One of the factors contributing to mango (Mangifera indica L) losses in Kenya and other parts of the world is jelly seed physiological disorder. It is thought to be related to imbalances of N, K, Mg and Ca supply to the fruit. The objective of this study was to establish the effect of dolomitic lime and muriate of potash (MOP) fertilization on mango jelly seed disorder and fruit tissue mineral content. MOP at a rate of  0, 1.0 and 2.0 kg/tree/year and dolomitic lime at a rate of 0 and 2 kg/tree/year were applied on ‘Tommy Atkins’ and ‘Van Dyke’ trees in 2013 and 2014. A sample of ten tree ripe fruits per treatment was scored for jelly seed incidence using hedonic scale. Another fruit sample was analyzed for K, Ca and Mg content. Dolomitic lime and MOP fertilization did not significantly influence jelly seed score however they significantly increased the fruit K, Mg and Ca content compared to control.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Rural Waste Materials as Natural Fertilizers on Sustainable Soil Fertility and Productivity in Myanmar

Phyu Phyu Myint, May Thu Soe, War War Aung

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2016/v12i64283

This research aimed to study the effect of waste materials from rural area as natural organic fertilizers on the soil fertility and crop production. Three natural fertilizers (defatted sesame meal; DSM, bat guano; BG and wood ash) and one commercial organic fertilizer (vedagro) were applied in radish (Raphanus sativas L.)  cultivation at the Hinthada Township (at 17°38ʹ latitudes north and 95°27ʹ longitude east), Ayeyarwady Region, Myanmar in 2013. Initial soil was found medium in K, moderately low in N, Mg, very high in Ca, P and the texture was assigned as silt loam and moderately alkaline. Three fertilizer treatments viz., DSM +Ash (1:1w/w), natural (1:1:1 w/w of DSM+BG+Ash) and Vedagro along with control (no fertilizer) were applied. The nutrient value and growth parameters in radish and the NPK contents of the soil after harvesting are also providing high results in the natural fertilizer treatment as well as Vedagro treatment. From these results, it can be inferred that application of this natural fertilizer can prevent soil nutrient depletion by cultivation of the plants and other environmental factors. These waste materials are available on or near the farm and recommended as cost effective and beneficial organic fertilizers.