Open Access Original Research Article

Influential Cooperation between Zeolite and PGPR on Yield and Antimicrobial Activity of Thyme Essential Oil

R. A. Zaghloul, Y. F. Y. Mohamed, Rasha M. El-Meihy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/28688

Aims: To study the interaction effect among the natural substance (zeolite), plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract as foliar spraying on vegetative growth characteristics, yield and essential oil properties as well as chemical composition of its hydrodistilled essential oils by GC were studied. Also, microbial enzymes activity in thyme’s rhizosphere and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil extracts was evaluated against some pathogenic microorganisms.

Methodology: During two successive seasons 2013-2014 and 2014-2015, two field split plot experiments were conducted at the Experimental Farm of Horticulture Dep., Fac. Agric. Benha Univ. The present study include two foliar spraying treatments in the main plot (without and with Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract) and five treatments in the sub plot (control, full dose of NPK, half dose of NPK + PGPR , full dose of zeolite, half dose Zeolite + PGPR).PGPR namely Azotobacter chrococcum  ML1, Bacillus circulans ML2 and Bacillus megaterium ML3. Vegetative growth characteristics (plant height, branches number, fresh and dry weight), yield and essential oil properties and chemical composition of its hydrodistilled essential oils by GC were studied. Also, microbial enzymes activity (dehydrogenase, phosphatase and nitrogenase) in thyme’s rhizosphere and the antimicrobial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration) of the essential oil extracts was evaluated against some pathogenic microorganisms viz., Salmonella typhorium, Pseudomonas aureogenosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans.

Results: Results indicated that thyme’s rhizosphere amended with half dose of zeolite combined with PGPR and Saccharomyces extract gave the highest significant values of all estimated enzymes. In addition, plant height, branches number/plant, fresh and dry weights were higher in plants inoculated with PGPR combined with zeolite at half dose and sprayed with Saccharomyces extract compared with other treatments. These results are true in two cuts and in both two growing seasons. On the other hand, chemical analysis of thyme grown under different treatments showed that chemical fertilizer treatments gave the highest significant values of macronutrients and carbohydrates content. Regarding the effect of different treatments on essential oil composition of Thymus vulgaris, it was clearly that the main components were thymol, β-phyllandrene and myrcene. These components of thyme’s oil were able to inhibit all tested pathogens via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test which resulted that the examined Gram positive bacteria were more sensitive rather than either Gram negative or Candida albicans.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Soil Surface Conditions and Rainfall Intensity on Runoff Generation Potential in Semiarid Botswana

Kagisanyo Bedi, Benedict Kayombo, Cecil Patrick, Gilbert Gaboutloeloe

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27719

The study analyzed an investigation of soil surface conditions and their runoff generation potential by means of field experiment and model predictions. The field experiment was carried out during the period January 2012 – September 2013 at the Botswana University of Agriculture & Natural Resources (BUAN) Farm, located at Sebele (24°33̍S, 25°54̍E) and 994m above mean sea level.

The specific objectives of the study were (1) to determine the proportion of rainwater that went off as runoff from common tillage systems, and (2) to determine the rainfall intensity for runoff initiation under the bare soil surface condition.

In order to achieve the above specific objectives a field experiment was carried out. For specific objective one, a Completely Randomized Block Design comprising of three blocks of runoff/catchment plots measuring 25m2, 50mand 100m2 were laid out. Within same plots/catchment, the following soil surface conditions were imposed: Mouldboard Ploughed Surface (PS), Poorly Managed Surface (PM), Harrowed Surface (HS) and Natural Vegetation (NV). At the bottom of the catchment area, a runoff collection system was laid out and runoff was measured after every storm event.

The rainfall intensity data collected from the recording float-and-syphon type rain gauge by the Botswana Dryland Farming Scheme (1985-1994) at Sebele was compiled and used to complement the rainfall intensity data recorded during the experimental period (2012/13).

The analysis of the field experimental results showed that a 5 x 5 m PM (un-weeded surface) yielded significantly more runoff than NV, PS and HS by 39%, 61% and 56% respectively.   Thus, to build-up moisture conservation on farmland for crop growth, farmers should choose a tillage system that promotes good rainfall infiltration into the soil, such as ploughing and harrowing once.

The power regression curve analysis to test if measured rainfall intensity could initiate runoff on bare soil surface showed that a rainfall intensity of 1.0 mm/h initiated runoff of 1.3 mm at R2 = 60%, which was relatively lower. This could be attributed to the only 22 observations made due to the limited number of rainfall events during the period under review.

Open Access Original Research Article

Persistence and Leaching of Herbicides in Oxisol and Their Efficiency in Suppressing Weed Emergence Flow

Sandro R. Brancalião, Maria Beatriz B. Soares, Carlos A. M. Azânia, Fernando D. Cassanelli

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/28406

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual effect of herbicides on the flow of emerging plants over time, at different depths of soil in an area of cane sugar over a oxisol.

Study Design: In the field, the design was a randomized block with six treatments and four replications. In the greenhouse, the completely randomized design while maintaining the same treatment in the field, In both steps, we used the following herbicides, sulfentrazone, amicarbazone, tebuthiurom, diuron + hexazone, imazapic and control treatment.

Place and Duration of Study: The field experiment was carried out at Sugarcane Center in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil (21°12’00.4”S, 47°52’21.7”W) during the rainy season (setember to march).

Methodology: To assess the leaching were used PVC pipe of 10 cm in diameter, longitudinally sectioned, were buried to a depth of 20 cm attempting to maintain the original structure of soil. After fixing the pipes in the ground, were sown seeds of ivy-leaf morning glory (Ipomoea hederifolia) between cane rows, in order to verify the effectiveness of herbicides in controlling this plant daninha. After 90 days, the tubes were removed, separated into halves and placed in greenhouse, where seeds of the test plants rope-glory (Ipomoea hederefolia) lengthwise along the profile of each half of the tubes. At 30 days after sowing, the number of plants was recorded at depths 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 cm.

Results: The herbicides sulfentrazone and amicarbazone obtained greater control of Ipomoea hederifoliaemergency flow over other treatments. For 0-5 cm deep layer of the herbicides studied showed leaching. The herbicide sulfentrazone showed higher leaching compared to other herbicides in the 0-5 and 5-10 cm deep. Tebuthiuron controlled germination of Ipomoea hederifolia at depths greater than 10cm,

Conclusion: The suppressive effect on emergency flow of weeds was observed only superficially.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer Sources and Foliar Spray with Some Growth Stimulants on Vegetative Growth, Productivity and Quality of Globe Artichoke

M. H. M. Mohamed, Maha Mohamed Elsayed Ali

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/25274

Two field experiments were conducted during two successive seasons of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 at the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Moshtoher, Benha University to investigate the effect of phosphorus fertilization sources i.e., phosphoric acid, bio-phosphorus (Al-Mowaffer bio), calcium superphosphate and rock phosphate and foliar spray with benzyladenine (BA) at 20 ppm, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 40 ppm, salicylic acid (SA) at 50 ppm and  monopotassium phosphate at 2 g/l in addition to the control treatment as well as their interactions on vegetative growth, chemical constituents of plant foliage, total flower head yield and its components as well as head quality of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) cv. French. The results showed that application of bio-phosphorus and phosphoric acid fertilizers reflected the highest values of plant growth, chemical constituent, head yield and its quality compared with other used phosphorus sources. Spraying plants with BA at 20 ppm led to significant increases in most vegetative growth parameters and total number and yield of flower head. Using 2 g/l monopotassium phosphate-sprayed plants was responsible for the highest numbers of early head and quality traits of produced head. The combination treatments between bio-phosphorus fertilizer form (Almowaffer bio) and spraying plants with BA or monopotassium phosphate were superior in most cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Phosphate and Potassium Fertilizer Rates on Potato Plants Grown under Water Stress Conditions

Fadl A. Hashem, Noura M. Taha, Shaimaa H. Abd-Elrahman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/28372

The effect and relationship between water stress, potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers rates on water consumptive use, water requirements, and yield of potato cv. Valor was studied under field conditions at Dokki Protected Cultivation Experimental Site, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza Governorate, Egypt. The study concerned with the use of different rates of K fertilization (50, 100 and 150 kg K2O/fed) and P fertilization (50 and 100 kg P2O5/fed) under different irrigation scheduling (100, 75 and 50% of irrigation requirements by Penman-Monteith method) on potato crop cultivated in alluvial soil. The highest plant growth was recorded when water irrigation level reached 75% of irrigation requirement in the presence of 100 kg P2O5/fed and 150 kg K2O/fed. Results also revealed that more or less similar values of macronutrient uptake were found in plant leaves at different treatments. Finally, results obtained indicated that this treatment is the most effective treatment on growth parameters also recorded the highest tuber yield and its content from carbohydrates and protein. Thus, farmers should not supply water irrigation of potatoes more than 75% of irrigation requirement to obtain economic tubers.


Open Access Original Research Article

Pre Harvest Calcium Treatment under Selected Poly Films Improves Leaf Chlorophyll Content in Rose Cut Flower

G. Oloo-Abucheli, J. N. Aguyoh, G. Liu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/28999

Quality is a key attribute in marketing of cut flowers. A number of factors may determine quality in cut flowers, among them being the pre-harvest conditions under which the plant was grown. This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of light transmission through selected poly films, rose cultivar and calcium foliar feed on leaf chlorophyll content. The study site was at an elevation of 2238 m above sea level with average maximum and minimum temperature ranges from 19°C to 22°C and 5°C to 8°C respectively. The area receives a total annual rainfall ranging from 1200 to 1400 mm. The experimental design was split split plot laid down in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with poly films forming the main plot treatments. Data collection involved use of Watch dog data logger mini weather station to determine Photosynthetically active radiation among other spectrum properties. Light transmission was evaluated using UV-1800 Shimadzu spectrophotometer. It was observed that leaf chlorophyll content increased with increase in calcium concentration in the foliar feed. Interactive effect was observed between the calcium foliar feeds and the poly film covers on stem firmness. The obtained results were consistent in both trials however the stem firmness was varied from one flush to the other. Effect of temperature caused by varying light intensity on chlorophyll content is also discussed. The results obtained show impact of environmental and nutritional factors on rose cut flower quality.