Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Association among Yield and Other Physiological Characters in Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)

P. Keerthi Nandan, Ch. Shalini, G. R. Lavanya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/29530

Aims: Owing to mungbean’s nutritional quality, short duration, high protein and suitability for multiple cropping systems, field experiments were planned to elicit information on morpho-physiological characters, with their interactions.

Study Design: The present investigation consisted of 30 mungbean genotypes including one check in Randomized Block Design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, U.P, India.

Methodology: The data was recorded for 14 characters to study the variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation coefficient.

Results: Genotype ABL 19 (8.23) was considered as best genotype for seed yield per plant followed by KM08-188 (8.10), (LC) K-851 (7.89). A close perusal of variability coefficients revealed that the differences between PCV and GCV was small indicating little influence of environment on the expression of the characters studied. High to moderate estimates of GCV and PCV were recorded for number of pods per plant, number of clusters per plant, seed yield per plant for morphological characters and peroxidase content for physiological characters. The plant characters plant height, number of clusters/plant, 100 seed weight and harvest index showed positive significant correlation for morphological characters, whereas leaf area index, net assimilation rate, dry matter production and protein content showed positive significant correlation for physiological characters.

Conclusion: Thus, these traits are recognized as the efficient and potential for indirect selection for the improvement of mungbean productivity in the present experimental materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phosphorus Influence on Plant Tissue Nitrogen Contents and Yield Attributes of Finger Millet Varieties in Semi-arid Region of Kenya

Wekha N. Wafula, Nicholas K. Korir, Henry F. Ojulong, Moses Siambi, Joseph P. Gweyi-Onyango

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/29901

The experiment was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effect of differential levels of P on finger millet accumulation of N and yield components. On-station experiments were conducted at the KALRO-Kiboko crops research station in Makueni County during the short and long rains of 2014 and 2015 respectively. There were 4 levels of P (0, 12.5, 25 and 37.5 kg ha-1 P2O5) and three varieties (U-15, P-224 and Ekalakala). Ekalakala was the local check while 0 kg/ha P2O5 was the control. The trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design and fitted in factorial arrangement with three replicates given a total of 36 plots. Soil sampling was at a depth of 0-30 cm on all the plots and analytical results showed moderately available P but very low N, organic carbon and zinc. Significant differences (P=.05) were observed between the phosphate levels on the nitrogen contents in plant parts with the control showing the lowest N accumulation of 4.95% and 4.90% for the short and long rains respectively while the 25 kg ha-1 P2O5 rate had the highest with 5.66% in the short rains and 5.14% in the long rains. The stem contained the highest nitrogen content while the roots had the lowest. Phosphate rates did not have significant influence on the yield components except the finger width while the varieties varied significantly (P=.05) on the productive tillers, panicle number, grains per spikelet and the harvest index. Variety U-15 had the highest yield for both seasons with a maximum of 3410 kg ha-1 for the short rains. The newly released variety (U-15) responded well to moderate P supplemented at 25 kg ha-1 P2O5 thus can efficiently utilize N in soils with low N like in Makueni and is highly recommended. The optimal P for the yield and N accumulation was 25 kg ha-1 P2O5and beyond this point the P would not be translated to profitable yield but a loss to the farmer in the short run.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantifying Short-term Effects of Soil Improving Legumes on Soil Properties and Carbon Sequestration in a Degraded Paleustult in Agbani, Enugu Southeast Nigeria

M. A. N. Anikwe, J. C. Eze, C. G. Chikelu, E. E. Ikenganyia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/30001

A field trial was conducted at Enugu Southeast Nigeria (6°29'N; 7°14 54'E), during the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons to quantify short-term effects of soil improving legumes [groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L), Soybean (Glycine max) and Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)] on soil properties and carbon sequestration in a degraded Typic Paleustult. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with four legumes as treatments and six replications. Some soil quality attributes, plant shoot and root biomass, and soil carbon sequestration of the legumes were measured at 90 days after planting (DAP). Results show that soil dry bulk density (1.41-1.46 Mg m-3) and gravimetric water content (GWC) (23.16 - 26.00%) in pigeon pea and Bambara groundnut plots were lower than that in other plots by about 10-14% whereas soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) was higher in pigeon pea and Bambara groundnut plots (23.45 - 33.10 Cm hr-1) by 14-28% for both seasons. The soil organic carbon content (SOC) (0.75 - 0.83%) and Total N (0.074 - 0.091%) in pigeon pea and Bambara groundnut plots were higher than that in soybean and groundnut plots by about 17 and  5-6% respectively for both seasons. The highest carbon sequestration was obtained in fields of Pigeon pea and Bambara groundnuts. These results depict that the legumes used improved soil quality, increased above- and below-ground biomass and improved carbon sequestration. Pigeon pea and Bambara groundnut exerted the most positive influence on soil carbon sequestration in the study area. Efficient cropping systems can be used to optimize carbon sequestration which in turn enhances soil productivity, reduces the enrichment of atmospheric CO2 and mitigates climate change in soils.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating and Upscaling Effectiveness of Fertilizer Materials to Replenish Soils of Western Kenya

M. A. Osundwa, J. R. Okalebo, K. W. Ndung’u-Magiroi, A. K. Kipkoech, J. O. Othieno, W. K. Ngetich, R. Njoroge, R. Njoroge, C. L. Rono

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/13494

In western Kenya soils are acidic and have low fertility. A study was carried out to examine the effectiveness of four recommended soil fertility management practices. There were four treatments, DAP, DAP + lime, MPR + CAN, Rutuba + DAP and a control where no fertilizer was applied. P was applied at the rate of 26 kg P ha, N 75 kg N ha and 60 kg K ha. Application of DAP resulted in pH decline. Minjingu PR and Rutuba commercial organic manure had no effect on the soil pH in Siaya. There was significant increases (p<0.05) in soil pH with the addition of Minjingu PR in Uasin Gishu and Trans Nzoia counties. Siaya county had the lowest maize yields but with the highest response to fertilizer application. Trans Nzoia gave the highest grain yields, but did not show significant differences (p<0.05) between the fertilizer treatments. From the analysis of Minimal Return of Rates (MRR), it is economical to use DAP in Trans Nzoia, a combination of DAP and Lime in Uasin Gishu and MPR and CAN in Siaya county.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Physio-biochemical Responses of Wheat Genotypes under Drought Stress

Ali Aliakbari-Sadeghabad, Ali Dadkhodaie, Hojjat Hasheminasab

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/28354

Tolerance strategies under water deficit conditions involve many physiological and biochemical responses which help crops to cope with drought stress. To study wheat response to stress, twenty Iranian wheat genotypes were evaluated in two separate field experiments during 2009-2010 growing season. Each experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications. The moisture level in one experiment was 100% field capacity while 45% field capacity was applied at the second experiment. Several biochemical (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and lipid peroxidation) and physiological indices (relative water content, relative water protection, stomatal resistance, chlorophyll and canopy temperature depression) were measured. Drought stress increased activities of lipid peroxidation, relative water protection, relative water content, stomatal resistance, chlorophyll and canopy temperature depression significantly at the pre-anthesis stage (Z34). Higher antioxidant activities, relative water content, relative water protection, chlorophyll, stomatal resistance and canopy temperature depression, and lower lipid peroxidation were observed in tolerant genotypes. The results demonstrated positive correlation of antioxidants with relative water content, relative water protection, chlorophyll, stomatal resistance and canopy temperature depression, and negative correlation with lipid peroxidation. Relative water protection and superoxide dismutase were suitable indices for screening and classifying tolerant genotypes. The results suggested that a combination of traits such as higher antioxidant activity, stomatal resistance and water retention capacity lead to wheat drought tolerance and the cultivars Kavir and Bahar were the most and least tolerant genotypes, respectively.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Gamma Irradiation and Nitrogen Fertilization Levels on Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) Grown on Sandy Soil

M. M. Ismail, E. A. Mousa, A. A. Moursy, M. A. Rizk

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27402

A field experiment was carried out on sand soil using maize as a test crop exposed to different rates of N fertilizer and doses of gamma radiation. Response of maize to these exogenous factors was evaluated. Results revealed that, the irradiated (20 Gry) plants have higher grains (5.4 ton ha-1) and lower stalks yield (17.533 ton ha-1) than those of the non-irradiated plants (5.111 ton ha-1 and 18.867 ton ha-1, respectively) fertilized with rate of 240 kg N ha-1. In this respect, the relative increase or decrease was 5% and -7% over or lower the non-irradiated one, for the same sequence. Increasing gamma rays dose up to 40 Gry achieved higher grains and stalks yield (5.533 ton ha-1 and 18.778 ton ha-1, respectively) than those recorded with the non-irradiated plants (5.111 ton ha-1 and 18.867 ton ha-1, respectively) fertilized with rate of 240 kg ha-1. Relatively, grains were approximately increased by about 7% over the non-irradiated plants while stalks yield was lowered by about 0.5%. It means that irradiation did not significantly, positively or negatively, affected the grain and/or stalks yield. Grain and stalks yields were highly significantly increased by increasing the N fertilizer levels as compared to the non-fertilized control.