Open Access Original Research Article

Temporal Profiles of Soil Properties and Performance of Amaranthus Grown on Farm Yard Manure-mediated Crude Oil Polluted Soil

Agele Samuel, Aiyelari Peter, Idowu Ronke, Hazzan Yinuus, Ogundare Kayode

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27666

An experiment was conducted in the plant house of the Department of Crop, Soil and Pest management, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria, to examine the efficacy of manuring and incubation periods on the amelioration of the toxic effects of crude oil contamination on soil properties and Amaranthus performance. The time dynamics of physical, chemical and microbial population of the manured mediated crude oil contamination were observed following 270 days (9 months) of incubation. Bonny light crude oil was applied at zero and 5% (0 and 325 ml per pot) to the containerized (pot) soil which were amended with Farm Yard Manure (FYM) at 0 and 40 g per pot. The manure-mediated crude oil polluted containerized soil were incubated for periods of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 9 months. Treatments were arranged using Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with three replications. The toxicity of the crude oil pollution and its capacity to support plant growth was assessed via germination, seedling survival and growth of Amaranthus at the various periods of incubation. Data were also collected on soil biological, physical and chemical properties at the various sampling dates (periods of incubation). Application of organic fertilizer to crude oil-contaminated soil produced significant influence on soil chemical properties, microflora populations, and on the growth characters of Amaranthus. Organic amendment of crude oil contamination at two rates of organic fertilizer produced increases in soil pH and its contents of organic matter, N, P and K, and the colony sizes of microflora populations, and improved root, shoot biomass and leaf development of Amaranthus.  Soil application of of crude oil affected soil chemical properties  via decreases  in soil pH, organic matter, N, P and K) and the colony sizes of microflora  populations (bacterium, yeast and fungi counts). Crude oil contamination inhibited seed germination and growth of Amaranthus from the commencement of experiment to 4 weeks after treatment application. The time changes in soil elemental concentrations and biological populations following contamination with crude oil was monitored. Data obtained on soil chemical constituents (pH, organic matter, CEC) biological populations were fitted to correlation and regression models. The observed trendlines in time-dependent elemental concentration and soil biological populations were described by power, logarithmic and polynomial relations with high R2values. The initial declining trends in values with time up to the forth months after crude oil application were followed by a little linear increases in soil chemical properties and microbial population with time. These trends were consistent for both soil chemical properties and microbial population. The nature of the trends (polynomial function as best fit) indicate that the responses were  not sole function of a factor but suggest synergy among  factors responsible for the decay of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds and hence its toxicity to soil chemical properties and biological activities. The study showed that soil microbiological population (diversity) may be useful tools for assessing the effect of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination on soil and environmental health.


Open Access Original Research Article

Root Development at Different Growth Stages of Wheat and Barley Cultivars Grown in Tubes under Field Environmental Conditions

Hayati Akman, Ali Topal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27800

This work was conducted to investigate root length and biomass developments at three different growth stages of GS 31 (stem elongation), GS 69 (complete of anthesis) and GS 92 (full grain maturity) of two cultivars for each of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Konya 2002 and Gerek 79), durum wheat (Triticum durum cv. Çeşit 1252 and Kunduru 1149) and barley (Hordeum vulgare conv. distichon cv. Larende and Karatay 94) that were grown under irrigated and non-irrigated field conditions during 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 growing seasons. It was found significant differences for genotype, year and growth stage with regard to root length and biomass. Average root length of cereal genotypes at GS 31, GS 69 and GS 92 reached up to 204.7, 236.1 and 230.3 cm, respectively. According to species, at GS 69 average root length of bread wheat, durum wheat and barley was found 226.0, 237.0 and 227.0 cm, respectively. Barley root was as long as wheat, even barley had larger root system depending on different growth stages than wheat. For bread wheat, durum wheat and barley, 86.5, 77.3 and 92.5% of the root length and 31.9, 37.0 and 33.9% of root biomass were respectively formed up to the stage of stem elongation. The results showed that a considerable part of root length constituted up to GS 31, however that of root biomass was between GS 31 and GS 92. In conclusion, root length and root biomass developments were considerably affected by plant growth stages, genotypes, and environmental conditions.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Row Arrangement and Integrated Nutrient Management on the Yield of Aromatic Fine Rice (cv. BRRI dhan34)

R. Marzia, M. A. R. Sarkar, S. K. Paul

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/30158

An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from June to December 2014 to study the effect of row arrangement and integrated nutrient management on the yield of aromatic fine rice (cv. BRRI dhan34). The experiment comprised three row arrangements viz. single row (row spacing 25 cm), double row (row spacing 25-10-25 cm), triple row (row spacing 25-10-10-25 cm), and six nutrient managements viz. control (no manures and fertilizers), recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers (i.e. 150, 100, 70, 60 and 10 kg Urea, TSP, MoP, Gypsum and ZnSO4, respectively ha-1), 50% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + cow dung  at 5 t ha-1, 75% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + cow dung at 5 t ha-1, 50% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + poultry manure at 2.5 t ha-1 and 75% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + poultry manure at 2.5 t ha-1. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tallest plant (120.65 cm), the highest number of total tillers hill-1 (12.87), panicle length (25.49 cm), grains panicle-1 (161.81) and grain yield (3.79 t ha-1) were obtained from double row arrangement. With respect to nutrient management 75% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + cow dung at 5 t ha-1 gave the highest plant height (124.60 cm), number of total tillers hill-1 (15.05), number of effective tillers hill-1 (12.98), longest panicle (25.29 cm), grains panicle-1 (155.66) and grain yield (3.89 t ha-1). The control treatment (no manures and no fertilizers) gave the lowest values for these parameters. The highest grain yield (4.30 t ha-1) was found in double row arrangement combined with 75% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + cow dung at 5 t ha-1, which was statistically identical with the combined effect of double row and 75% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + poultry manure at 2.5 t ha-1 and the lowest grain yield (2.08 t ha-1) was found in triple row arrangement in control (no manures and fertilizers). Therefore, double row arrangement combined with 75% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + cow dung at 5 t ha-1 and 75% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + poultry manure at 2.5 t ha-1appeared as the promising practice in aromatic fine rice (cv. BRRI dhan34) cultivation in terms of yield.


Open Access Original Research Article

Planting Pits’ Effects on Soil Nutrients in a Sorghum and Pigeon Pea Rotation in Semi-arid Areas of Eastern Kenya

Rebecca Yegon, Peter W. Mtakwa, Geoffrey C. Mrema, Felix K. Ngetich

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/30127

Planting pits are rain water harvesting structures that trap water and nutrients in surface runoff and rain water falling directly into the pits. Planting pits have been promoted for improving crop yields without considering the nutrient dynamics. To contribute to this knowledge, a study was conducted to determine the soil nutrient content after four seasons of growing sorghum and pigeon pea in rotation in “Chololo” and “Five by Nine” pits. Two planting pits; “Five by Nine” and “Chololo” with a control without water harvesting replicated three times were arranged in a randomised complete block design. The study was done for four seasons in Embu and Tharaka-Nithi counties in semi-arid Eastern Kenya. Soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium were determined. “Chololo” pits significantly increased total organic carbon by 0.06 mg kg-1 and total nitrogen by 0.4 mg kg-1 relative to without water harvesting in Machang’a. The potassium content significantly increased by 0.4 cmolc kg-1 and 0.54 cmolc kg-1 in “Five by Nine” and “Chololo” pits in Machang’a relative to without water harvesting. There was an insignificant effect on soil phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sodium. After four seasons of planting pits, total nitrogen, potassium and calcium increased in both soils and phosphorus in Machang’a relative to the beginning of the study. Total organic carbon significantly decreased in “Chololo” pits and without water harvesting in Machang’a. Phosphorus significantly decreased in Nkarini whereas magnesium and pH decreased in both soils. Nutrients in “Five by Nine” and “Chololo” pits depended on the soils and crops grown and should thus be promoted together with periodic soil testing.


Open Access Original Research Article

Nodulation and Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) Genotypes as Influenced by Inorganic Nitrogen Fertilizer in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

Agah Boniface Unimke, Emwanta Idehen, Jeremiah Idongesit Mbre, Magaji Tagwai

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/30413

Evaluation of existing groundnut genotypes for nitrogen fixation may be useful as selection criteria for high nitrogen fixation capacity. The objective of this study was to determine extent of effective nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) genotypes. The treatments consisted of ten groundnut genotypes (SAMNUT 24, SAMNUT 22, ARRORSICGX-SM 00017/5/P15/P2, SAMNUT 10, 6AT, ICIAR 7B, ARRORSICGX 000201/5/P4P10, SAMNUT 21, SAMNUT 23 and SAMNUT 14) and two rates of nitrogen fertilizer (0 and 30 kg/ha) and were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. There was significant variation in nodulation in most of the selected variables in the two years of the trial with 2011 statistically out-performing 2012. ARRORS-ICGX 000201/5/P4P10 (29.11 kg N/ha) and SAMNUT 23 (22.27 kg N/ha) were the best genotypes in terms of biological nitrogen fixation, nodule number, and nodule dry weight in both 2011 and 2012. Application of 30 kg N ha-1 significantly increased nitrogen fixation and Ndfa but significantly reduced nodule number and weight. ARRORS-ICGX 000201/5/P4P10 (2739 kg/ha) and SAMNUT 22 (3346 kg/ha) performed best even without the addition of the starter dose of nitrogen fertilizer signifying their ability to reduce the cost of production by saving cost on inorganic fertilizer. Three distinct categories based on the amount of biologically fixed nitrogen and pod yield were assumed. ARROS-ICGX000201/5/P4P10 and SAMNUT 22 were high fixing and high yielding; 6AT was high fixing and low yielding; while SAMNUT 21 and ICIAR 7B are low fixing. Similarly, considering the drastic declined in the number of effective nodulation of the genotypes with increased dosage of nitrogen fertilizer, downward review of the current recommendation will be necessary to enhance the efficiency of nitrogen fixation of groundnut.


Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Compaction under Three Different Land Use Systems within the Semi-deciduous Agro-ecological Zone of Ghana

Mavis Dansua Arthur, Ernest Frimpong Asamoah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/25495

Soil compaction due to land management systems has profound implications on soil Physical properties with consequent effects on soil productivity. The paper at hand assesses soil compaction under three different land use systems (cultivated land, grassland and adjacent forest land). Soil samples were collected from the different land use types at 0-30 cm depth using the core sampler method and analyzed to determine soil texture, soil bulk density and soil porosity. The results showed variations in bulk density and porosity levels under the three different land use systems and also significant differences (P<.05) in soil texture with land use system and soil depth. Extreme levels of compaction were observed under the grassland (1.80 g/cm3) and the cultivated land (1.76 g/cm3) at 20-30 cm depth as compared to soils under the natural forest based on the Canarache’s soil compaction index. The findings underpin the credence that conversion from natural forest to cultivated land or grassland decreases soil productivity. Therefore the need to consider soil compaction as a major area in land end-use planning.