Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Micronutrients and Manures on Growth and Yield of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) in Sandy Loam Soil

M. Monjurul Alam Mondal, Md. Babul Akter, Md. Habibur Rahman, Adam B. Puteh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/26528

Proper nutrient management is very important for increase yield of field crops in any type of soil.  Field experiments were conducted under sub-tropical condition of Bangladesh for two consecutive years to study the response of garlic cv. Multiclove local to different combination of boron (B), zinc (Zn), cowdung (CD), chicken manure (CM) and mustard oil cake (OC) in the sandy loam soil. The treatments consisted of 12 combinations with B, Zn, CD, CM and OC. Application of boron had tremendous effect on growth and yield but Zn had no significant influence on growth and yield in garlic. OC added fertilizer combination showed the best performances regarding yield and yield attributes. CM added fertilizer combination had the second highest yield performance and showed non-significant difference with OC added fertilizer combination in garlic. Application of OC is not beneficial due to 30 times higher price than CD and CM. CM added fertilizer combination showed higher bulb yield with the higher economic return than CD added fertilizer combination. CM added fertilizer combination also had almost equal investment and cost-benefit ratio in comparison with CD. The lowest marginal benefit-cost ratio was observed in OC added fertilizer combination though it showed higher bulb yield as well as economic benefit. Based on marginal rate of return, the marginal farmers’ may be advised to follow NPKSB + CD fertilizer combination. The farmers having ability to invest more, may go to the treatment of NPKSBZn + CM or NPKSBZn + OC for maximum economic benefit and also sustainable soil health in sandy loam soil.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Tractor Wheel Passes-induced Compaction and Organic Amendments on Soil Properties and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Warp) in an Alfisol of the Rainforest Zone of Nigeria

Agele Samuel, Aiyelari Peter, Famuwagun Babadele, Oluwasola Olufunke

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27665

A field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of tractor wheel passes and organic amendment on soil physico-chemical properties and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in an Alfisol of the rainforest zone of Nigeria. Varying degrees of penetration resistances were imposed on the seed bed via multiple tractorised wheel passes (4, 8 and 12) and the ploughed and harrowed only seed bed were imposed using Messy Ferguson tractor. Treatments which were laid out using split-plot design, consisted of 3 x 4 factorial combinations of tractor wheel passes and organic manure application and replicated 3 times on field plots of 60 x 12 m. The multiple tractor wheel passes increased soil strength (penetration resistance) and affected growth and seed yield of cowpea. The results show high soil strength was obtained within the plough layer and the active portion of crop root zone (10 - 30 cm) while there was increasing trends in values of soil strength from planting to crop maturity especially at depth (30 – 50 cm soil depth). Shoot biomass, pod and seed weight were lower for 8 and 12 tractor wheel passes compared with ploughed and harrowed seedbed and plots treated to 4 wheel passes. Application of organic manures ameliorated compaction effects on soil properties and enhanced growth and yield of cowpea. Organic amendment of the variously tractorized seedbed decreased bulk density thus alleviated the consequences of compaction especially within the plow layer on root development, growth and yield characters of cowpea. Close relationships among soil moisture status (content), mechanical impedance and cowpea seed yield characters obtained indicate strong interactions among soil moisture status, mechanical impedance and cowpea performance.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Soil pH, Cattle Manure and Total Copper Load on Copper Solubility in Copper Contaminated Soils

Yasin Hassan Senkondo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/29699

Coffee fields in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania have been contaminated with copper (Cu) as a result of long term use of Cu-based fungicides. Solubility and mobility of Cu in soils may be detrimental to the environment and human health due to possible leaching thereby contaminating underground water resources. Cu solubility and bioavailability to plants may decrease with time through conversion of the contamination to less available forms, a process referred to as 'aging'. Therefore, this study explored the interaction effects of soil pH, cattle manure and the total Cu load on Cu solubility in long term Cu contaminated soils. Soils treated with and without cattle manure were leached with water adjusted to pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 8.5. The results revealed that Cu solubility was higher in soils with higher total Cu load and that cattle manure had varied effects on Cu solubility at different pH levels. The soils buffering capacity were adequate enough to arrest fluctuations in soils pH and therefore acid rains as well as over liming may not cause excessive solubility of Cu in long term Cu contaminated soils.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Applying Cattle Manure as a Potassium-containing Material for the Reclamation of Saline-sodic Soils: A Model Experiment

Limin Tong, Akira Watanabe

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/30159

Sodification has developed into severe, world-wide soil problem, especially in arid region. Although the most common method for treating such sodic soils is to replace sodium (Na) with calcium (Ca) using gypsum, replacing Na with potassium (K) is also a possible solution. The present study was aimed at confirming the effectiveness of applying cattle manure as a local material in rangelands that are rich in K for remediating sodic soils in model experiments. Two saline-sodic soil samples collected from Tongliao, Inner Mongolia, China, were used. Cattle manure was applied to soils at mass ratios of 0, 1, 2, 5, 10%, and the soils were leached with water three times. The pH and electrical conductivity of the leachates and soils, cation concentrations in the leachates, and exchangeable cation contents in the soils were then measured after completion of the leaching. In both soils, Na release was increased with increasing amount of cattle manure used. The decrease in exchangeable Na and the simultaneous increase in exchangeable K indicated that the soil Na was replaced by manure K. The soil pH decreased with increasing rate of manure application, and soil infiltration was also improved, as indicated by hydraulic conductivity tests.


Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Organic Carbon and Tree Density in Homegardens of Rangpur District, Bangladesh

M. S. Jaman, Md. Shariful Islam, Mahbuba Jamil, M. F. Hossain

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/29617

Tropical agroforestry systems are considered to have a huge potential to sequester and store carbon (C) both in the aboveground biomass and the belowground biomass, as well as in soil. Compared to many other types of agroforestry systems homegardens are popular in the tropics and the sub tropics because they tend to sequester more C in soil than monoculture plantations and they can also serve as an important ecological tool in terms of species composition and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC). Tree species density is reported to be a important factor that influences SOC content in many of tropical agroforestry systems. This research was carried out to determine the SOC and tree density characteristics in homegardens in four selected villages in Rangpur district, Bangladesh. For determination of SOC, 128 number of soil samples were collected and combined to make a composite sample for each sampling depths (0­­­–10 cm and 15–25 cm) in each of the two different sampling sites of homegardens. Average estimated SOC was 49.24 Mg ha-1, where the size of the homegarden in related to tree density (1630 trees ha-1) resulted in the highest amount of SOC (63.62 Mg ha-1). This study demonstrates that homegardens with high tree density sequester more SOC.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aqueous, Ethanolic and N-hexane Extracts of Annona senegalensis on Germinability of Okra Seeds

O. I. Adejobi, N. D. Torjir

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/29957

Annona senegalensis, generally known as African custard-apple has been indicated to inhibit the growth of pathogenic strains of Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa while flavonoids isolated from the stem bark of Annona senegalensis have been shown to inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, and Shigella sp. The aim of this study was to develop a safe, cheap and cost effective treatment against selected plants pathogens and also at evaluating the protective potential of the extracts of Annona senegalensis against selected fungal pathogens of okra seeds. In this study, the effect of Aqueous, Ethanolic and N-hexane Extracts of Annona senegalensis on germinability ofAbelmoschus esculentus was observed. A total of ten different concentrations (1000 mg/L to 10000 mg/L) of the respective crude extracts were used for the study. To each universal bottle containing 20 mL of the known concentrations of the respective extracts, approximately 20 surface sterilized seeds were added and allowed to stand for 30 min. At the termination of the planting period, the seedling height, % germination, germination rate, germination time, germination capacity, germination index and seeds vigor of each of the slots were estimated. In conclusion, it can be seen from the results of the study that aqueous, ethanol and N-hexane A. senegalensis extracts solution tested in this study have priming and antifungal potency.