Open Access Original Research Article

Salinity Resistance of Five Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) Cultivars at Young Plants Stage

Agapit Wouyou, Christophe Bernard Gandonou, Françoise Assogba Komlan, David Montcho, Ahissou Séraphin Zanklan, Stanley Lutts, Simplice Léopold Gnancadja

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31611

Aims: In this study, salt resistance level of five amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) cultivars: AA-04-028, AA-04-017, Locale, Rouge and Red-Sudan, was evaluated at young plants stage.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out as a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in a screen house at Center of Agricultural Research of Agonkanmey, Commune of Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin from July to September 2016.

Methodology: Three weeks old plants of the five cultivars were submitted in pots containing a mixture of potting soil and sand to four NaCl concentrations: 0, 30, 60 and 90 mM NaCl corresponding respectively to an electric conductivity of 0, 1.915, 4.815 and 8.39 dS.m-1 by irrigation every two days. Plant growth parameters were evaluated after two weeks.

Results: Salt effect caused a reduction of young plant growth whatever the growth parameter considered with a significant difference among cultivars. The growth reduction due to NaCl is lower and non significant in cultivar Rouge for all growth parameters except root fresh mass, whereas this reduction is higher and significant (p=.05) in cultivars Locale and AA-04-028 for all growth parameters. For cultivars Red-Sudan and AA-04-017, the reduction due to NaCl was significant   (p= .05) only for leaf number and plant height. The results indicated that cultivar Rouge was the less affected by NaCl, followed by AA-04-017, Red-Sudan and AA-04-028; cultivar Locale was the most affected.

Conclusion: Plant height, leaf number and root length appeared as the most suitable growth parameters for studying salt stress effect in Amaranthus cruentus. For the first time, we demonstrated that there is a variability of relative salt-stress resistance among A. cruentus cultivars at young plant stage. Among the five cultivars, Rouge appeared as the most salt resistant whereas cultivar Locale was the most salt sensitive at young plants stage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Enterobacter hormaechei and their Suppression Efficacy against Colletotrichum falcatum in Combination with Chitosan

Deepmala Katiyar, A. Hemantaranjan, Bharti Singh, Abhishek Kumar Malakar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31549

Aims: This study aimed to explore the suppression efficacy of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) Enterobacter hormaechei, chitosan and its oligomers either singly or in combination on red rot disease causing pathogen Colletotrichum falcatum in sugarcane.

Methodology: The study was conducted to isolate twenty nine bacteria from sugarcane rhizosphere and investigate their potential for plant growth activities. Selected isolate PSC3 was characterized by biochemical and molecular identification by 16S rRNA sequencing. The study was further preceded for in vitro screening of plant growth promoting traits viz., production of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) ammonia (NH3) production and antifungal activity against C. falcatum.

Results: Among twenty nine isolates strain PSC3 showed highest plant growth promoting traits viz., indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia production and antifungal activity against C. falcatum among other isolated strains. Nucleotide 16S rRNA sequence analysis using clustalW program revealed that isolate PSC3 showed phylogenetic affiliation and maximum homology (99%) with E. hormaechei. Antifungal activity of chitosan, chitooligosaccharides (COS) and E. hormaechei were checked by inhibition of C. falcatum mycelial radial growth. Among three treatments of chitosan, COS and chitosan + E. hormaechei, two treatments showed significant antifungal activity (P<0.05). Chitosan treatment showed radial growth range from 2.5±0.07 to 1.9±0.03 cm against C. falcatum in comparison with control (9.1±0.09 cm). The significant growth inhibition 79.0% was observed in chitosan at concentration 0.6% but the combination of chitosan with PGPR E. hormaechei PSC3 showed highest growth suppression of C. falcatum (86.8%) whereas fungal treated with only E. hormaechei showed growth radial inhibition 41.3%.

Conclusion: The findings reveal that chitosan and E. hormaechei have significant effect on C. falcatum. This new antifungal combination may be help to prevent red rot disease in sugarcane.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring the Potential Options on Salt Affected Soil Management for Crop Production at North Delta Soils, Egypt

M. M. Saied, A. M. S. Kheir, G. M. A. El Sanat

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2017/v14i33160

Two field experiments were carried out at Sakha Agricultural Research Station, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate in salt affected soils during two summer seasons 2014 and 2015. The study aims at investigating the effect of soil multi-amendments combined with different sources of nitrogen on soil properties, yield and water relations. The experiments were carried out in randomized complete block design with four replicates. The results showed that the application of gypsum combined with ammonia gas and farm manure produced the highest grain and straw yield of rice. While the lowest values were obtained from application of gypsum and ammonia gas. At the same time, the application of gypsum and established mole drain combined with injection of ammonia gas, farm manure and bio fertilizer resulted in pronounced increments for the studied plant growth parameters. Also, the highest value of crop water productivity was obtained from application of gypsum, injection of ammonia gas and farm manure. While the lowest one was obtained with application of gypsum combined with ammonia gas in 2014 season and control in 2015 season. In conclusion with most summarized chart, application of gypsum, construction of mole drain at 4 m spacing and 50 cm depth combined with injection of ammonia gas, farm manure and bio fertilizer achieved the highest yield of rice grain and straw, water productivity and nitrogen use efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Wheat Cultivars for Zinc Efficiency and Bio-fortification

P. S. Kulhare, G. S. Tagore, G. D. Sharma

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31514

The present study was conducted to identify Zn efficient/inefficient wheat genotypes through application of Zn. A field experiment was conducted during 2009-10 and 2010-11 under AICRP on micro-secondary nutrients and pollutant element in soils and plants at Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur. The sixteen varieties of wheat crop and three levels of Zn (0, 20 kg Zn ha-1 as basal application and 20 kg Zn ha-1 as soil application in combination of 0.5% foliar spray of ZnSO4) were tested in a split plot design. The pooled data showed that variety GW-366 and GW-273 were found significantly superior to all other varieties for grain yield, uptake by grain and total Zn uptake. The Zn content in grain and straw of Sujata, C-306 and WH-147 were observed significantly superior to other wheat varieties. The Zn concentration in grain and straw and their Zn uptake successively and significantly increased with the application of 20 kg Zn ha-1 and 20 kg Zn + 0.5% foliar spray of ZnSO4. The most effective Zn fertilization could be via soil+foliar for enhancement of grain Zn concentrations of Zn‐inefficient genotype GW-273.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Potentials of Agroforestry Systems in East Africa: A Case of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania

Msafiri Y. Mkonda, Xinhua He

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31299

The optimization of crop yields and environmental services need a proper selection and adoption of sustainable farming systems. Agroforestry is a farming system which involves the integration of trees and crops in the same plot. It is a climate-smart environmental conservation system that aims at increasing crop yields as well as environmental services. The Eastern Arc Mountains (EAM) of Tanzania, which cover Usambara and Uluguru Mountains, have a significant potential for agroforestry. They are characterized by potential biophysical resources such as fluvial, vertisol and xerosols soils with the annual rainfall exceeding 1200mm per year. We reviewed over 40 peer reviewed publications to assess the ecological significance of the agroforestry system in the EAM with clear focus on Usambara and Uluguru Mountains and found that the agroforestry system has been in practice on a small scale for a couple of years. The agroforestry has significantly increased crop yields by 50% in few areas where it is practised and has protected the environment by improving soil fertility, enabling the carbon sequestration and protecting water resources. As a result, this study recommends further researches on the same to reveal its potential in improving the conditions of small-scale farmers in East and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Carbon Isotope Study of Soil Amendment with Maize Fermentation Digestate

Frantisek Buzek, Bohuslava Cejkova, Milan Gersl, Ivana Jackova, Zdenka Lnenickova, Eva Gerslova

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/30299

Maize digestate was applied to follow its sequestration in arable soil profiles with accent on changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) content and the production of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Two control sites with cultivated Cambisols (rye-grass, kohlrabi) were amended by the addition of digestate from maize silage fermentation. Liquid digestate was applied once in the spring in the quantity of 18 g C/ m2. The process of amendment was checked after 4 and 12 months by the use of natural labelling of the amendment by the difference in the carbon isotope composition of the SOC (C3 vegetation) and applied digestate (C4 maize).

The amendment was evaluated from the SOC content, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and their δ13C isotope composition by sampling across the soil profiles (0–90 cm). An increase of the carbon content by the amendment was measurable in the upper soil layers (0–20 cm) only. The deep soil layers are poor in carbon content (less than 0.2% of SOC) but rich in clay micro particles, which efficiently adsorbed incoming DOC with infiltrated precipitation. Change of the δ13C of soil carbon was measurable down to -80 cm. 

Applied digestate increased the carbon content of top soil layer only. We did not observe significant migration of C4 amendment from top soil to the deeper soil layers. Digestate addition increased DOC production at both sites for the upper soil layers only. DOC released from the deep soil layers originates from the upper parts of the soil profile and not from the native carbon in the layer.