Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) to Sulphur and Lime Application under Soil Acidity

Sandeep Kumar, Ram Swaroop Meena, Gulab Singh Yadav, Achyutanand Pandey Pandey

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31492

A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of sulphur and lime application on sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) alley cropping. The results revealed that, increased application levels of sulphur up to 30 kg/ha significantly increased the plant height (136.91 and 151.83 cm), leaf area index (2.52 and 1.02), dry matter accumulation in leaves (2.44 and 1.32 g/plant) and dry matter accumulation in roots (2.62 and 2.89 g/plant) at 60 days after sowing (DAS) and at harvest, respectively. Further, increase the level of sulphur up to 45 kg/ha was statically at par with 30 kg sulphur/ha. Similar growth and yield patterns were observed with the application of 250 kg lime/ha in sesame. Moreover, all growth parameters at 30 DAS were observed not-significant sulphur and lime application. Interaction effect was also recorded at P=.05 level of significance between sulphur and lime levels on sesame seed (356.00 kg/ha), stalk (386.42 kg/ha) and biological (837.69 kg/ha kg/ha) yield with the application of 45 kg sulphur/ha + 350 kg lime/ha, which were observed to be the highest than all other treatments. The present investigation concluded that sulphur deficiency and soil acidity problems negatively affects sesame productivity and it can be overcome with applications of 30 kg sulphur/ha and 250 kg lime/ha in Vindhyan region of India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genotypic Variation in Physiological Quality of Fresh Cotton Seed

M. Abdus Salam, M. Moynul Haque, Md. Obaidul Islam, M. Nasir Uddin, Md. Nazmul Haque

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31205

Quality seed is essential to increase cotton production in Bangladesh. For this, 43 cotton genotypes were evaluated to identify better inherent physiological seed quality. The experiment was set up at the Seed Science and Technology Unit Laboratory of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh in May, 2009. The results showed great variation exists in seed index, seed germination percentage, electrical conductivity and seedling vigour of studied cotton genotypes. Frequency distribution suggested the majority number of the genotypes had higher values of germination percentage and seedling vigour. Electrical conductivity (EC) test of seed leachate provides the status of seed quality. The highest EC of seed leachate found in  genotypes BC-0434 and BC-0432 ensuing of weak membrane while the lowest EC of seed leachate was recorded in genotype BC-0125. Cluster analysis grouped the genotypes into five distinct groups which categorized into (i) low, (ii) medium low, (iii) medium, (iν) medium high and (ν) high vigour. The genotypes BC-051, BC-0197, BC-0432, BC-0438 and BC-0252 in cluster V showed the highest germination percentage (96.20%) with the highest seedling vigour index (5064). Therefore, these genotypes could be used for genetic improvement of cotton considering higher yield with better seed quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of the Concept of Minimum Data Sets to Soil Quality Assessment for Crop Production in Southwestern Nigeria

O. D. Adeyolanu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31890

Active carbon, potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN), pH, CEC, effective soil depth, aggregate stability and bulk density qualified as MDS for soil quality assessment of tree crops while active carbon, PMN, pH, CEC, aggregate stability, available phosphorus and bulk density qualified for arable crops. Under tree crops, soil quality indices with 12 indicators and MDS ranged from 63– 87% and 61–86%; and 60–72% and 61–71% under arable crops. Relationship between indices of the two sets of indicators shows high positive correlation (r = 0.83 and 0.74 for tree and arable crops respectively).

With the concept of MDS in place, soil quality assessment will be less costly and therefore more affordable for farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ecological Characteristics of Para Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) Productivity in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Binang Walter Bisong, Ittah Macauley Asim, Edem Eyo Edem, Essoka Ayuk

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/30582

The Niger Delta region is the rubber belt of Nigeria, and rubber production in the area which is dominated by smallholder plantations, is characterized by low latex yield, due mainly to ageing plantations, unsuitable agronomic practices and high cost of labour. Differences in soil and weather attributes of the area require that farmers adopt location-specific management practices in order to increase yield. Consequently, the relationship between medium-term latex yield of rubber and soil and weather attributes were studied in three rubber growing areas of the Niger Delta, with a view to assessing the fertility status of soils supporting rubber and determining the critical weather factors so as to make recommendations on best management practices. Weather data for estate plantations located in Calabar (latitude 5º 7’N and 8º 18’ E), Nko (latitude 5º 5’ N; 8o 11’ E), and Uyo ((latitude 5º 0’ N; 7º 10’E), spanning a period of 20 years (1993-2012), were obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological Service (NIMET) and subjected to multiple linear correlation and regression analysis with archival latex yield data from the various estates covering the same period. The minimum amount of rainfall received was 2148.7 mm/annum spread over a period of 135 days at Nko, while a maximum of 3968.7 mm/annum of rainfall spread over 143 days was received in Calabar. Rainfall intensity varied widely across the three locations, while the relative humidity was high, but similar across the locations and the highest ambient temperature of about 32ºC was at the Nko plantation. There was high correlation between weather variables and latex yield. The high negative correlation of latex yield with rainfall in Calabar and Uyo suggest that these areas experience excessive rainfall which might result in the prevalence of fungal diseases and frequent disruption of tapping operations. Maximum temperature correlated negatively with yield at Nko implying that measures to reduce evapo-transpiration such as mulching the base of trees and cover cropping should be adopted in this area. The soil texture was sandy loam in Calabar and Uyo, and sandy clay loam at Nko, and although the pH across the estates was within the recommended range of 4.0 - 6.5, the soils at Calabar and Uyo requires liming for sustained high productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Testing Selected Soils from Bamyan Center Agricultural Research Farms for Initial Macro and Micro Nutrients with Focus on Phosphorus Availability

Mohammad Hassan Zaki, Sayed Ziauddin Hashami

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31892

Phosphorus (P) and micronutrients deficiencies are common in alkaline soils. Alkaline soils make up some of the most productive agricultural lands in the Bamyan center of Bamyan province in central Afghanistan and little is known about the phosphorus fertility status of these soils. The objectives of this study were to determine the soil fertility status of 4 soils collected from the four research farms in Bamyan center and also to conduct P incubation studies on these soils to determine the fixation and availability of added P. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 3 replications of each treatment. Soils used in this study had pH > 8.0, free CaCO3 contents of 9.3-10% and texture ranged from silty clay loam to sandy loam. Seven rates of P (0, 5.6, 10.9, 16.4, 21.8, 32.8, 43.7 mg kg-1) were added as monocalcium phosphate [Ca (H2PO4) ·2H2O]. Soils were incubated at approximately 0.03 MPa soil tension for 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days at 25° C and the Mehlich 3 soil test was used to determine available P. Mehlich 3 extractable P did not change consistently with time so data were averaged over all 6 sampling periods to determine the effects of P rate on Mehlich 3 P soil test levels. Soils segregated into two groups of two soils each that responded similarly in their response to P applications. Approximately 70 percent of the applied P remained available in one group of soils, while in the other group of soils, approximately 50 percent of the applied P remained available.