Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Variability of Wild Apple (Malus spps) Genotypes in Kashmir Valley

Shazia Hassan, K. M. Bhat, H. U. Rehman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32072

The present investigation was carried out in order to survey, document and characterize available germplasm of wild apple to obtain information on the variability and genetic divergence with respect to various traits. 33 genotypes of wild apple were collected. A significant difference in various fruit and leaf traits was observed although maximum range was observed for fruit weight i.e. 1.06 g in Selection 3 and 81.34 g in selection 20 followed by TSS (6.70°Brix in Selection 10 and 16.30 °Brix in Selection 4). Estimates of divergence among 33 wild apple genotypes revealed that significant divergence existed among them. The genotypes under study were grouped into 8 clusters as per Mahalanobis D2 analysis with maximum number of genotypes in cluster I (17 genotypes) followed by cluster III (8 genotypes), cluster II (3 genotypes) and rest were monogenotypic.  The maximum intra cluster distance was observed in cluster III (139.24) followed by cluster I (67.77) where as the inter cluster distance was maximum between cluster II and V (5213.52) followed by cluster II and IV (4895.20). Cluster means also showed significant differences in terms of various observed traits with maximum range in fruit weight (1.34 g in cluster IV to 79.19 g in cluster II) followed by TSS (6.70 °Brix in cluster IV to 16.30 °Brix in cluster V). The crosses between the genotypes of cluster II with V and II with IV and cluster I with II are likely to exhibit high heterosis and produce recombinants with desired traits in segregating generations. Besides this, principle component analysis (PCA) was performed to study correlation and to interpret relationship among genotypes. Results revealed that PC1 variation observed was 88.19% while from PC2 variation was observed as 8.84%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rapid Field Technique for Soil Salinity Appraisal in North Nile Delta Using EM38 through Some Empirical Relations

Hesham M. Aboelsoud, Mohamed A. E. AbdelRahman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/30858

Diagnosis of soil salinity and its spatial variability is required to establish control measures in irrigated agriculture. Soil salinity can vary temporally and spatially due to dynamic nature of soluble salts. For these reasons, practical methods for measuring soil salinity (ECe) are required to achieve faster, cheaper, and reliable surveys. Thus, the bulk soil electrical conductivity (ECa) was measured directly in the field using portable sensors (EM38) in vertical position (EMV) or horizontal position (EMH). Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop statistical relations between ECa and ECe and assess whether they could be applied for salinity predicting and mapping. The empirical relations were established to convert EM38 readings (ECa) in mSm-1 to ECe values in dSm-1 for different depths. So, ECe was determined in soil samples collected from 33 sites at depths of 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm. Also, 33 EM readings (EMV and EMH) taken at soil sampling sites were used to derive equations for salinity prediction. Fifteen quadratic or multiple regression models were established to describe the relations between the original or logarithmic values of both ECa and ECe. The statistical comparison measurements; coefficient of determination (R2), simple correlation coefficient (r) and t-test were also used to evaluate the relationships between the actual and predicted ECe values to select the relevant models. So, two preferable models were chosen and one equation for each soil depth was derived from each selected model to be used for ECe predicting. These equations allow useful prediction of ECe using ECa values, since ECa values are regressed strongly with ECe values (R2 > 0.70). Also, the actual and the predicted ECe levels were highly correlated (r > 0.80), in addition to insignificant differences between them according to t-test.

Open Access Original Research Article

Larvicidal Effect of Castor Plant (Ricinus communis Linn) on Anopheles Mosquito

Omoya Funmilola Oluyemi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32039

Aims: Mosquito-borne diseases still remain a major health problem and their control depends largely on preventive measures against the vectors. The control of mosquito at larvae stage is considered effective way of vector management. Hence, this study aimed at evaluating larvicidal activities of methanol, N-hexane leaf extract and seed oil of castor plant (Ricinus communis Linn) against 2nd and 4th instar of Anopheles mosquito larvae.

Place and Duration of Study: This research work was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Methodology: The castor leaf and seed oil were extracted with soxhlet extractor using 98% N-hexane and methanol. Different concentration of the extracts were prepared (10.0-100.0 mg/L), also, a test concentration ranging from 200-1,000 ppm were prepared with distilled water, and mortality was recorded after 24 hours of larvae exposure to extracts.

Results: In 2nd instar larvae, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the LC80 and LC95 values of the extracts, Castor seed oil extract has the lowest values. Castor seed oil extract has the highest mean larval mortalities of 97.60±1.63% and high larvicidal activity at the lowest concentration of 200 mg/l. In 4th instar larvae of Anopheles mosquito after 24 hours of exposure, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the LC80 and LC95 values of the extracts, Castor seed oil has the lowest LC80 and LC95 values. Castor oil has the highest mean larvae mortality of 97.60±1.00% and larvicidal activity with high mortality at lowest concentration of 200 mg/l.

Conclusion: Conclusively, the results revealed that extracts of Ricinus communis possesses larvicidal properties against Anopheles mosquito larvae and might be a potential biological control measure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heterobeltiosis and Genetic Assortive Mating for Yield and Its Component Characters in Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum)

N. Rohini, V. Lakshmanan, D. Saraladevi, A. Jhon Joel

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31913

To measure the extent of heterosis and inbreeding depression in hot pepper, the study was conducted at Horticultural College and Research Institute, Periyakulam, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India during the year 2012 -13, 2013- 14.  For effective initiation of study, six homozygous inbred lines of hot pepper along with their 30 hybrids and 30 F2’s progenies derived from a 6 x6 full diallel set was used. The hybrids, K 1 x Arka Lohit (113.05%), LCA 625 x K 1 (104.42%), Pusa Jwala x K 1 (126.77%), Pusa Jwala x PKM 1 (140.83%) and K 1 x PKM 1 (109.13%) recorded superior amount of better parent heterosis, enlightening the involvement of non ­ additive genes. Considering the yield contributing characters, the above crosses showed the better results; hence they may forward to advanced generations. The crosses gave higher heterobeltiosis in F1 which showed low inbreeding depression in F2 generation.  The best performing progenies based on negative inbreeding was observed in K 1 x PKM 1 (-22.22%) and K 1 x Pusa Jwala (-22.08%) for yield and its contributing characters.  The results showed that in F2 even after inbreeding depression, some promising segregants exhibited good performance and positive selection in such crosses can lead to further improvement. Significant and positive heterosis with low inbreeding depression for yield and yield related traits were exhibited by Pusa Jwala x PKM 1, LCA 625 x K 1 and K 1 x Arka Lohit. The segregating progenies identified in second generation may be utilized for the identification and selection of desirable recombinants in advanced generations in order to develop high yielding varieties with specific attributes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Rock Phosphate and Potassium Feldspar with Biological and Organic Amendments and Its Effect on Soil Phosphorus and Potassium Availability and Uptake, Growth and Yield of Canola

Abo-Baker Abd-Elmoniem Abd-Elmoniem Abo–Baker Basha, Mohamed S. Hassan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31347

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficient use of both rock phosphate (RP) and potassium feldspar (KF) combined with phosphate (PDB) and potassium (KDB) dissolving bacteria inoculation and/or humic material application on soil phosphorus and potassium availability and uptake, growth and yield of canola compared to the use of chemical manufactured fertilizers. Two field experiments using canola as a test crop were performed during the winter seasons of 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 on the experimental farm, Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt. They had a complete block randomized design with three replications. The experimental treatments included single and dual inoculations of the soil with phosphate and potassium solubilizing bacteria as well as a direct applications of rock phosphate and potassium feldspar with and without humic material additions.

The results indicated that the direct addition of P and K mineral materials in a combination with P and K dissolving bacteria as biological amendments as well as humic materials as an organic form to the sandy loam soil improved P and K availability in the soil, their uptake and growth parameters of canola compared to the control. The most effective treatment was (RP+KF) + (PDB+KDB) + humic materials which produced the highest values of growth, seed yield and nutrient uptake by canola plants compared to the control or to their sole application. There were no significant differences in the parameters produced from these treatments and those obtained from using P and K chemical fertilizers. These results reflected the efficient use of natural sources of P and K combined with the biological additions of P and K dissolving bacteria and humic materials as an organic source instead of using P and K chemical fertilizers for growing crops. Therefore, the direct application of rock phosphate and potassium minerals to soils is considered a promising and economic alternative of natural resources.