Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Different Botanicals for the Control of Coffee Leaf Rust (Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome)

R. M. Mudyiwa, N. Mwatsiya, B. T. Manenji, P. Chidoko, C. Mahoya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2017/v14i63288

Coffee is one of the major foreign currency earners for Zimbabwe, with over 95 % of the total production being exported. Production of coffee is constrained by diseases such Coffee Leaf Rust caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix. Chemical control is widely used but it is expensive and not environmentally friendly. Hence this experiment was conducted in the laboratory at Coffee Research Institute, Chipinge in November 2015, with the objective of examining the efficacy of four botanical extracts viz Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis), Moringa (Moringa oleifera) and Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) extracts in three different concentrations (100, 50 and 25% leaf extracts) as compared with Copper oxychloride as a standard fungicide and distilled water as a negative control. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) design with a 4 x 3 factorial structure and was replicated four times. The first factor was the above mentioned four botanicals and the second was the respective concentrations (25%, 50% and 100%). Each experimental unit comprised three Petri dishes. Data on spore germination inhibition percentage was recorded. Results showed that the different plant extracts were effective in inhibiting germination of the spores though their effects were different. There was a strong correlation between plant extract concentration and spore germination inhibition for tobacco, Aloe vera and Moringa. Increase in plant extract concentrations resulted in a marked increase in spore germination inhibition. Of the four plant extracts; Moringa and lemon grass proved to be the most effective while Aloe vera was the least effective. It can be concluded that the four plant extracts are effective in inhibiting fungal spore germination. It is recommended that further studies be done in order to establish the active compounds which are responsible for the anti fungal activities. Also more experiments should be done to determine effects of these plant extracts on other fungal diseases which affect crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dry Matter Partitioning and Yield of Different Varieties of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) under Aberrant Climatic Conditions in Central India

S. Neenu, K. Ramesh, S. Ramana, J. Somasundaram

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31404

Aim: To study the effect of sowing dates on dry matter partitioning and yields of soybean cultivars field experiment was carried out at Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal.

Materials and Methods: Ten varieties of soybean were raised in two sowing dates under rainfed conditions in black soil of central India. First sowing was done at optimum date (first week of July) and second 15 days after the first date.

Results: Results showed that sowing at optimum date recorded significantly higher pre-flowering DMP (7.65 g plant-1), DMP at maturity (13.27 g plant-1), percent of post flowering DM partitioning into seed (46.45 %), pod dry weight (5.02 g plant-1), seed weight (2.67 g plant-1) and HI (34%) compared to second sowing. Among the varieties JS 8021 recorded significantly higher pre flowering DMP (8.34 g plant-1) followed by JS 9752 (7.7 g plant-1), DM at maturity by JS 9752 (12.73 g plant-1), pod weight (5.4 g plant-1) and seed weight (3.19 g plant-1) by JS 9560 followed by JS 9752 (4.1 g plant-1 and 2.15 g plant-1 respectively) and HI by JS 9560 (0.34).

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the variety JS 9752 may be taken up to minimize the yield loss due to delay in sowing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal and Phosphorus Contents of Jew's Mallow (Corchorus olitorius L.) Plants Grown on Soil Amended with Phosphate, Bio and Organic Fertilizers

Abo-Baker Abd-Elmoniem Abo–Baker, Noha Ahmed El-Tayeh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32149

This study was conducted to assess the impact of different chemical, organic and bio fertilizers on growth, phosphorus and heavy metal (Zn, Cd, Co, Cu and Ni) contents of Jew's mallow (Corchorus olitorius L.) plants. Pot and field experiments were carried out in the screen house and experimental farm, Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, Egypt in the summer season of 2013 and 2014, respectively. The experimental treatments included rock phosphate, superphosphate and triple superphosphate fertilizers singly or in combination with phosphate dissolving bacteria (PDB) and/or filter mud cake (FMC) as biological and organic amendment to the soil. They had a completely randomized design and complete block randomized design with three replications for pot and field experiment, respectively.

The results of both experiments showed that, although the second and third cuts gave greater plant growth than that of the first cut, only the first cut of the plants received rock phosphate fertilizer either alone or in a combination with PDB and FMC or their mixture contained the lowest level of heavy metals. The results indicated that, only in the first cut with plants receiving rock phosphate fertilizer either alone or combined with PDB, FMC and PDB+FMC recorded the lowest Zn content values of 45.0, 56.0, 64.0 and 94.0 mg / kg, respectively which were below permissible limit, while the second and third cut Zn concentration in plants with different combination treatments was higher than the permissible levels. Also, rock phosphate treatment alone or with PDB in the first cut showed lowest plant Ni content (10 mg/kg) which on the border of the permissible level.  The cobalt level in C. olitorius plants that received all phosphate fertilizer types (ranged from 7.0 to 16 mg/Kg) were below the permissible limit. The Cu level in investigated plants received all phosphate fertilizer types with different combination treatments with the three cuts were within the acceptable range. Also the results showed that plants grown on the soil amended with natural rock phosphate alone or in combination with phosphate dissolving bacteria recorded lowest Cd values. It is recommended to use the natural rock phosphate in combination with phosphate dissolving bacteria for growing Jew’s mallow plants instead of chemical phosphate fertilizers and the plants should be harvested by pulling the whole plant including roots from the soil after 40 days from planting to avoid high heavy metal uptake by the plants of the second and third cuts which had a possible health impacts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Character Association in Fennel (Foeniculum vulgar Mill.)

Chander Mohan, J. P. Singh, Sunil Kumar, Ajay Puri

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31773

Economic yield of seed is an important character in case of seed spices. The yield of plant is a complex character and is governed by several factors. The present investigation was carried out with ninety genotypes of fennel along with three checks namely Pant Madhurika (Pantnagar, Uttarakhand), GF-11(Gujarat) and RF-125 (Rajasthan) in Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) during 2009-10 and 2010-2011 to estimate relationship between yield and yield-components by correlation coefficient analysis. The analysis shows that yield shows highly significant and positive correlation with plant height upto main umbel (0.375), plant height upto top of plant (0.446), number of primary branches (0.290), number of secondary branches (0.303), seed yield per plant (0.982), number of fruits per umbel (0.324) and number of fruits per umbellate (0.364) and positive and significant correlation with number of umbellate per umbel (0.219), thus indicating the importance of these traits as components for yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity Studies in Maize (Zea mays L.) Germplasm from India

S. M. Patil, Dan Singh Jakhar, Kamlesh Kumar, Sanjay Meena

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31660

In the present investigation D² values ranged from 36.84 to 369.02 and 40 genotype comprising 38 inbreds and 2 hybrids are grouped into seven and two clusters respectively. Among the clusters with inbred lines the cluster I with 16 inbreds emerged as dominating cluster followed by cluster III with 11 inbreds, cluster IV with 5 inbreds, cluster V with 3 inbreds and cluster II, VI, VIII were monogenotypic. The character grain yield per plant (46.15%) was the maximum contributor towards divergence followed by ear head height (37.69%), 100 grain weight (6.41%), and plant height (3.85%). On the basis of inter cluster distances, cluster means, per se performance observed in the present study the five genotypes viz Hyd 08R-2374-1, Hyd 08R-2614-2, GPM-320, GPM-35, and Hyd 08R-864-7 were found to be superior genotypes for further breeding programme.