Open Access Original Research Article

Epidermal Characterization of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. and Xanthosoma maffafa (L.) Schott. Accessions As Affected by Different Concentrations of Sodium Azide and Potassium Chromate in Nigeria

Florence O. Ajah, Julian O. O. Osuji, Geoffrey O. Anoliefo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31298

Epidermal assessment of five accessions of Colocasia esculenta and three accessions of Xanthosoma maffafa exposed to different concentrations of sodium azide and potassium chromate treatments was carried out. Each accession was planted in four different concentrations (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/kg) of each chemical, while the accessions planted with no chemical additive served as the control experiment. Results showed that both the treated and control accessions were amphistomatous, but with more stomata on the abaxial epidermis. Four types of stomata (brachyparacytic, amphibrachyparacytic, brachyparatetracytic and brachyparahexacytic-monopolar) were observed in these species. Contiguous stomata were observed on the abaxial epidermes of some treated samples of NXs 002 and NXs 003; control sample of NXs 003 however had contiguous stomata on both epidermes. The mean stomatal index survey showed that in both epidermes, sodium azide treatments induced higher stomatal index in the accessions than potassium chromate treatments. The anticlinal walls were straight in both control and treated accessions except for the abaxial epidermis of NXs 003 treated with 5 mg/kg of potassium chromate that had wavy anticlinal walls. The shapes of the epidermal cells were not affected by the treatments as they were observed to range from quadrilateral to nonagonal in all the accessions. However, some isodiametric and circular shaped epidermal cells were observed on the adaxial epidermis of NXs 002 treated with 7.5 mg/kg of potassium chromate and, on both epidermes of control NXs 003. Statistical evidence showed that the differences in stomatal indices and epidermal cell numbers between the adaxial and abaxial epidermes were significant at 5% likewise the differences between various accessions but the differences between treatments were not significant at P=.05. The study showed that both chemicals were capable of distorting epidermal architecture but sodium azide proved to be more potent than potassium chromate. Based on this, further studies were encouraged for a clearer understanding of the potentials of these chemicals in crop improvement programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Irrigation Water Quality, Nitrogen Fertilization Rates and Foliar Application of Ascorbic Acid on Wheat Yield and Some Soil Properties in the North Middle Nile Delta Region

M. A. Aiad, G. M. A. EL-Sanat, A. Kh. Amer, Kadria M. El-Azab

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31895

Lysimeter experiment was performed during winter season of 2015/2016 in Sakha Agricultural Research Station farm, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, to study the effect of irrigation water salinity, nitrogen fertilizer rates and foliar application of ascorbic acid on yield and its components of wheat crop and some soil properties. The experiments were designed as split-split plot with three replicates. The main plots were occupied by irrigation water salinity as: S1(0.56 dS m-1), S2(2 dS m-1), S3(4 dS m-1), and S4(6 dS m-1), sub plots were devoted to N-fertilization rates N1(75%N), N2(100%N), and 125%N recommended dose and sub-sub-plots ascorbic acid concentration A1(100 ppm) and A2(200 ppm).

The results can be summarized as follows

•       Irrigation water salinity, N-fertilizer rates and foliar application of ascorbic acid have a high significant on grain and straw, biological yield and 1000-grain weight.
•      The highest value for grain and straw yield (2290.30 and 3190.22 kg fed-1) was obtained with applying irrigation water (0.56 dS m-1), as compared to irrigation water salinity levels (2, 4 and 6 dS m-1), (2.4 Fed.= hectare).
•      The highest value for grain and straw yield (29830.50 and 3172.20 kg fed-1) were obtained by applying 125% N from recommended dose and (2785.38 and 2991.63 kg fed-1) as foliar spraying of ascorbic acid (200 ppm).
Grain yield was decreased by 4.04, 6.46 and 10.06%, under water salinity levels 2, 4 and 6 dS m-1, respectively with irrigation water compared to fresh water (0.5 dS m-1).
•       The straw yield of wheat was reduced by 8.56, 10.95 and 19.86% under irrigation water salinity levels 2, 4 and 6 dS m-1 compared to fresh water (0.5 dS m-1).
•      The highest mean values for both water productivity (WP) and productivity of irrigation water (PIW) were recorded under irrigation water salinity S1 and S2 comparing with S3 and S4 treatments. Also both nitrogen rates and ascorbic acid as foliar application have had positive effect on both (WP) and (PIW) for grains and biological yield where the highest mean values were recorded with N3 and A2 treatments.
•      The highest salt accumulation in soil profile under ECiw 2, 4 and 6 dS m-1were increased by 14.23, 22.79 and 46.94%, respectively as compared to ECiw 0.56 dS m-1 while SAR values were increased by (6.97, 10.92 and 25.38%).
•     The above mentioned results indicated that the applied leaching fraction 20 to 30% was not efficient to remove salts in the soil profile and further work needs to be done in order to maintain the acceptable salinity level in the root zone.
•     The highest values of grain and straw, biological yield and weight of 1000-grain were achieved with ascorbic acid at 200 ppm as compared to 100 ppm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inter and Intra Genetic Diversity of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) in Jammu and Kashmir Ecological Zone

K. M. Bhat, H. U. Rehman, Z. A. Dar, A. H. Pandit Pandit, M. A. Mir, U. Iqbal, S. Hassan, R. A. Lone

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32071

Nine sweet cherry accessions were used for the analysis of morphological variability and genetic diversity by means of multivariate statistical analysis. Days from full bloom to harvest was significantly lowest (66.33 days) in accession-6. Significantly highest fruit set (37.10%) was found in accession-2. However, fruit length was highest in selection-1 (24.82 mm) which was statistically at par with accession-7 (24.77 mm). Fruit weight was maximum in selection-2 (8.13 g) which was found to statistically at par with accession-1 (8.08g) and accession-7 (8.08 g). Fruit firmness was statistically maximum in selection-7 (396 gmm-1). Maximum stone length (11.40mm) was found in accession-8 while as minimum was observed in accession-2 (10.10 mm). Stone weight was observed to be maximum in accession-7 (0.48 g) while as minimum in accession-6 (0.35 g). Statistically highest and lowest TSS was observed in accession-7 and accession-6, respectively. Most acidic fruit were of accession-6 and accession-9 while as least acidic fruits were of accession-3. Significantly maximum yield was observed in accession-2 (8.31 kg).  The phenotypic variance was higher than genotypic variance for each observed trait. The phenotypic coefficient of variation and genotypic coefficient of variation was highest for TSS: acid ratio (16.21 & 15.94%) followed by fruit set (15.08 & 15.07%) and lowest for stone length (4.32 & 4.29%). The estimates of heritability (broad sense) in combination with genetic advance (as percent of mean) were high for fruit set (0.99 & 31.05%), TSS: Acid ratio (0.96 & 32.29%), fruit yield (0.97 & 28.56%), firmness (0.99 & 27.51) and fruit weight (0.99 & 21.02%). The accessions under study were grouped into 4 clusters as per Mahalanobis D2 analysis with maximum number of accessions in cluster I (5) followed by cluster IV (2) and rest two 2 clusters were monogenotypic.  The maximum intra cluster distance was observed in cluster IV (2995.47) followed by cluster I (1900.65) where as the inter cluster distance was maximum between cluster II and IV (12307.92) followed by cluster I and IV (10387.72).

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Hydraulic Resistance of Soil Surface Seals in Relation to Sediment Particle Size

Henry Oppong Tuffour

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/27701

Surface sealing, and their role in runoff and erosion, especially, in agricultural fields have been recognized as major set-backs to irrigation operations. Though the process is restricted to only the topmost soil layer of some few millimetres in depth, surface sealing can substantially impede the infiltration of water into the soil. However, information on this process is much less documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationships between seal type and hydraulic resistance. The paper presents a simple theoretical approach which allows the estimation of changes in hydraulic resistance at the soil surface as a function of time following the formation of surface seals formed from different sediment particles at different concentrations in suspension. A laboratory column studies was designed to investigate the effects of water quality on infiltration rate. Clear water, and muddy water comprising sand, silt and clay at different concentrations of 10, 20, 30 and 40 g in 400 cm3 of water were used as the test fluids.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield Performance and Nutrient Uptake of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Varieties under Different Dates of Sowing and Planting Geometry

Sourbh Khajuria, M. C. Dwivedi, Sandeep Kumar, Dileep Kachroo, R. Puniya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32239

An investigation was conducted at research farm of SKUAST–Jammu. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with 18 treatments and three replications. The treatments consisted of three dates of sowing (25th October, 5th November and 15th November), two varieties (RL-1359 and NRCDR-2) and three spacing (30 cm x 10 cm, 30 cm x 20 cm and 30 cm x 30 cm). The results revealed that the highest seed yield 1710 kg ha-1 was recorded with 25th October sown crop and significant reduction to the extent of 15.02 and 31.63 per cent was recorded when sowing was delayed to 5th November and 15th November, respectively. Among the varieties, yield attributes of varieties such as number of silliquae per plant, and 1000-seed weight were significantly higher with NRCDR-2 than RL-1359. However, seeds siliqua-1 of both the varieties was at par. Variety NRCDR-2 also recorded significantly higher seed yield 1510 kg ha-1 which was about 9.57 per cent more in comparison to RL-1359 (1378 kg ha-1). However, seeds siliqua-1 and 1000-seed weight of 30 cm x 30 cm and 30 cm x 20 cm was at par but significantly superior to 30 cm x 10 cm whereas, silliquae plant-1 was significantly higher with spacing of 30 cm x 30 cm as compared to 30 cm x 10 cm and 30 cm x 20 cm. Nutrient uptake in Indian mustard varieties was also significantly higher in October 25 sown  crop along with the spacing of 30 cm x 10 cm at different dates of sowing and spacing. Among the varieties NRCDR-2 depicted significant higher nutrient uptake.