Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Mango Based Agroforestry and Mono-Cropping System under Rainfed Condition of West Bengal

Babloo Sharma, Sandeep Kumar Tripathi, P. K. Dhara, Pratibha Kumari, Santosh K. Meena, Reena Kumari, Adyant Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32283

In India, the uncertainty of rainfed agriculture is high due to low and erratic rainfall, steep land slope and short cropping period. Objective of the study was to assess the effect of mango based agroforestry on productivity of cereal, oilseed crop and trees in highly degraded areas of West Bengal. This experiment was carried out on ongoing experiment plot of agroforestry systems at Regional Research Station of (B.C.K.V., started from 2007) Jhargram, West Bengal during two consecutive years i.e. 2014-15 to 2015-16. The experiment comprised two trees viz. gamhar (silvi tree) and mango (fruit tree) one cereal crop viz. maize and one oilseed crop viz. groundnut. The yield different entity was recorded and converted on per hectare basis. The highest yield i.e. groundnut equivalent yield was recorded 14.29 and 15.97 t ha-1 in Mango+ Gamhar+ Groundnut treatment during 2014-15 and 2015-16, respectively, followed by Mango+ Gamhar+ Maize treatment. The lowest groundnut equivalent yield was recorded under maize mono-cropping treatment during two consecutive years. The highest gross return was recorded INR. 357334 and 478996 under Mango+ Gamhar+ Groundnut based system during 2014-15 and 2015-16, respectively. In this way mango based agroforestry system is more suitable and sustainable approach under rainfed condition as compared with mono-cropping systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity and Variability among Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Genotypes Using Multivariate Analysis

Timon Ogheneweware Ogheneweware Emede, Babatope Samuel Ajayo, Collins Agho

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/30111

Multivariate analysis was used to group and study the pattern of genetic variability and relationship among ten papaya genotypes in Benin City, Nigeria. The experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria (Latitude: 6° 33′N, Longitude: 5° 37′E; 79m asl). Field evaluation of the papaya genotypes was carried out from October 2012 to June 2013. The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The result of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the contribution of the first three factors with Eigen value greater than one accounted for 93.0% of the total variation. The first component loaded highly for fruit characters except fruit flesh thickness and fruit diameter which loaded highly in the third component. The vegetative components loaded highly in the second component. Thus the pawpaw genotypes can be distinguished based on either yield or vegetative characters with more reliability on the yield parameters which mostly accounted for the greater proportion of variation. Better resolution can be achieved when both are considered together. The accessions were allocated into three clusters by Cluster Analysis. The three clusters formed indicate intraspecific phenotypic dissimilarity among the ten genotypes especially with the separation of the genotypes that were collected from similar environments. PCA and Cluster Analysis produced similar results in classifying similar genotypes into their separate clusters. Between accessions, CP006 and CP012 had the highest genetic distance while the lowest genetic distance was between CP001 and CP011. The level of variability observed suggested a high diversity among the genotypes. The phenotypic variations could be explored for utilization, conservation and for future genetic improvement by selection of genotypes with promising agronomic characters.  CP012 was particularly superior with respect to the studied traits and was the only genotype in its cluster group. Molecular studies would be useful to confirm the genetic diversity and characterize these genotypes for more detailed examination.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Vegetative Growth, Yield Components and Yield of Watermelon

Erone Vallantino Emongor, Thatayaone Malikongwa, Seoleseng Obonya Tshwenyane

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32462

Two field experiments were undertaken to evaluate the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on vegetative growth, yield components and yield of watermelon. The treatments were five levels of nitrogen (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg/ha) and four levels of phosphorus (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg/ha). The results showed that there were no interactions between nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) treatments on all the dependent variables determined. With application of 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha watermelon plants had significantly (P = .05) increased vegetative growth, yield components and fruit yield of watermelon compared to plants in which N was not applied. Application of N above 150 kg/ha decreased vegetative growth, yield components and fruit yield of watermelon. Application of 25 and 50 kg P/ha to watermelon plants increased vegetative growth, yield components and fruit yield of watermelon compared to plants in which P was not applied. Application of 75 kg P/ha had no significant (P = .05) effect on vegetative growth, yield components and fruit yield of watermelon. The positive response of watermelon plants to N and P was attributed to the role of N and P on growth, development and efficient utilization of carbohydrates to form protoplasm and more cells, and the increase in dry matter. The authors concluded that in order to optimize watermelon growth, yield components and fruit yield, N and P should be applied at 150 and 50 kg/ha, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Water Storage under Selected Maize Varieties (Zea mays L.) for Rain-fed Conditions in Zambia

Ethel Mudenda, Elijah Phiri, Lydia Mumbi Chabala

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32139

Aim: To evaluate soil water storage under 30 maize varieties differing in maturity for rain-fed conditions in Zambia. 

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the University of Zambia Agricultural Demonstration Center during the 2014-2015 rainy season in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Soil water storage was determined from gravimetric soil water measurements on selected dates during the crop growing season, while changes in soil water storage, drainage and runoff were estimated using the AquaCrop model.  Measured parameters were subjected to Analysis of Variance and differences declared significant at P < .05. 

Results: Significant differences were observed in storage and runoff (P < .001), and drainage (P = .00) of early maturing maize varieties. Maize varieties MRI 514, SC 513 and PAN 413 consistently had the lowest soil water storage in the profile, while SC 525 and SC 403 consistently had highest soil water storage throughout the growing season. Among medium maturing maize varieties, there was net depletion of water in the soil profile. However, no significant differences were observed in storage (P = .12), runoff (P = .11) and drainage (P = .84). PHB 30G19 and P 3812w maize varieties had, respectively, the lowest and highest amount of stored soil water in the root zone. No significant differences were observed in storage (P = .64), runoff (P = .30) and drainage (P = .22) for late maturing maize varieties. Nevertheless, PAN 8M 93 consistently had the lowest soil water storage, while ZMS 720 had the highest amount of stored soil water. 

Conclusion: The study concludes that soil water storage was dictated largely by the magnitude of drainage and runoff due to the sandy textured nature of the studied soil. Therefore, there is need to integrate effective management strategies that can enhance soil water storage especially on soils with low water holding capacity and such strategies are henceforth recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Responses of Physiological Indices of Forage Sorghum under Different Plant Populations in Various Nitrogen Fertilizer Treatments

Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian, Ali Soleymani

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32460

In order to evaluate physiological indices of forage sorghum in different plant densities and nitrogen levels, an experiment was conducted at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, Iran. The main plots were plant densities, namely, 250000, 300000, 350000, and 400000 plants per ha, and four levels of nitrogen, namely, 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg N/ha were sub-plots. The field was under cultivation of barley during the previous winter. For all plant density treatments, from 25 days after plantation until 95 days after planting, the total dry matter trend increased gradually. The highest total dry matter was observed in 95 days after plantation which was related to 400000 plants per ha and 240 KgN/ha. Study the trend of variances of crop growth rate showed that in all treatments, the crop growth rate was low in the beginning of sampling, thereafter increased considerably up to 60 days after planting with a peak in 60 days after planting, then showed a declining trend after that. In all of plant density treatments, RGR decrease during plant growth and reached to a zero at 75-85 days after planting, and it reached into negative after these days until harvesting time. In different plant nitrogen levels, RGR trends also decrease during plant growth and reached to a zero at 40-60 days after planting. The maximum LAI was obtained for 400000 plants per ha and 160 kgN/ha. Study of trend of net assimilation ratio (NAR) showed that in all treatments, the NAR was stable in the beginning of sampling, thereafter showed a declining trend that toward zero (90-95 days after planting).