Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Health Benefits of Pigment-containing Products on Creeping Bentgrass and Hybrid Bermudagrass

Lambert B. McCarty, Adam W. Gore, Philip J. Brown, S. Bruce Martin, Christina E. Wells

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32337

The objective of this research was to analyze the use of pigmented products in the management of heat stress on creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stolonifera L. var palustris (Huds.)] and low temperature stress on bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy]. Studies utilized: zinc oxide (ZnO), green pigment + titanium dioxide (TiO2) (Turf Screen); Cu-based pigment (PAR); fosetyl-Al (Fosetyl-Al); fosetyl-Al + Cu-based pigment (Signature); potassium phosphite (KH2PO4) (Title Phyte); Turf Screen + Title Phyte; and, PAR + Title Phyte. Products were applied bi-weekly for 12 wk. Bentgrass canopy temperatures increased ~0.5 to 3°C, photosynthesis reduced ~6 to 20 µmol CO2 cm-2 s-1, and relative chlorophyll content decreased ~8.5% by treatments, while bermudagrass was unaffected. Bermudagrass field studies indicated reduced photosynthesis (~8 to 21 µmol CO2 cm-2 s-1) for Title Phyte, stressed control, and Turf Screen. Root mass was unaffected by treatments. Turf Screen alone and + Title Phyte increased Zn plant (~820 mg kg-1) and soil (4.75 kg ha-1) levels. PAR alone and + Title Phyte; and Turf Screen + Title Phyte increased tissue Cu ~27 mg kg-1. Overall, pigmented products promoted bentgrass heat stress and heavy metal accumulation but had minimum effect on bermudagrass turf performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Phytoremediation Potentials of Some Plants Species of Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Antony de Paula Barbosa, Viviane Japiassú Viana, Ana Carolina Pires de Souza Araujo, Denise Alves de Lima

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32075

The aim of this study was to present new information on the main plant species occurring in the Serra da Tiririca State Park capable of potentially acting as phytormediators. This was based on a floristic inventory as well as field research. The floristic inventory resulted in the recording of 69 endemic plant species in the State Park of Serra da Tiririca. Among these the following known hyperacummulator families occurred: Brassicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Asteraceae and Lamiaceae. The main phytoremediator species identified and the mechanism by which they perform the remediation process, respectively, were: Thlaspi caerulescens J. and C. Presl, Pteris sp., Berkheya coddii Ans, Phytoextraction; Brassica juncea L., Salicornia bigelovvi Torr, Phytovolatilization; Zea mays L., Eucaliptus spp., Agrostis cappilares L., Festuca rubra L., Phytostabilization; Eichhornia crassipes, Phytodetoxification; Helianthus sp., Eichhornia crassipes Mart., Pteris sp., Rhizofiltration and Brassica juncea L., Rhizovilatilization. For the mediation of contaminated soils, these species identified in this study present a potential ability to perform phytoremediation process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Soils for Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Production: A Case Study of Siwes Farms of University of Agriculture Makurdi

E. A. Igomu, S. Idoga

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32009

The soils of the University of Agriculture Makurdi Teaching and Research Farm were surveyed, with the view to evaluating their morphological, physical and chemical properties for cowpea production. Makurdi is in a strategic position in the agricultural map of Nigeria, producing a wide range of both annual and perennial crops such as yam, maize, rice, sorghum, groundnut, soybean, cowpea, citrus, mangoes, and a variety of vegetables.  One of the factors responsible for this wide range of crops is the favourable climate. The study showed that the soils of the area had formed under climatic environment presently characterized by an annual rainfall of about 1330.20 mm and a mean annual temperature of about 27.80°C. The soils of the upper slope were classified as Typic Paleustalfs, while those of the middle and lower slopes were classified as Typic Haplustalfs and Typic Kandiaqualfs respectively, using soil taxonomy. The soils were well drained to poorly drained. The clay content ranged from 7.20 to 29.30%, increasing with depth. Organic carbon was low (0.47%) in the upland and relatively high (0.86%) in the low land. The soils had an irregular base saturation in all the Units. These soils are capable of moderately supporting cowpea production. The soils were moderately suitable for cowpea production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Farming System -An Approach towards Livelihood Security, Resource Conservation and Sustainable Production for Small and Marginal Farmers

O. Kumara, H. G. Sannathimmappa, D. N. Basavarajappa, Vijay S. Danaraddi, Akmal Pasha, S. R. Rajani

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31994

Per capita land holding has been reducing day by day due to fragmentation of land and farmers concentrate mainly on cropping systems approach rather than farming system approach.  Integrated farming system (IFS) is considered as one of the best option towards farming system approach through intensification of small holder farm income to ensure livelihood security. This is an Experiment on Integrated farming system. As the IFS is an integration of all the crop components and subsidiary enterprises. The Integrated Farming System model was established and renamed as All India Co-ordinated Research Project, Main Centre for Cropping Systems Research to Integrated Farming System at Agriculture and Horticultural Research Station, Kathalagere, Karnataka during 2011-12 for 1 ha area under Indian Institute of Farming System Research (IIFSR), Modipuram, Meerut. Farming system approach includes cropping systems and subsidiary enterprises (Dairy, Sheep etc.,). Accordingly, the land was demarcated components wise on per cent basis out of 1.0 ha. Growing cropping systems like paddy-paddy /paddy-finger millet/paddy-pulse with 50 per cent area in order to meet the family food requirement and in addition to get better profit out of these produce. The results after 5th year of establishment of integrated farming system indicated that total production from cropping system was (16.04 t/ha /year of rice equivalent yield), Horticulture components (11.80 t/ha /year of rice equivalent yield), dairy (1.75 t/ha /year of rice equivalent yield), sheep unit (0.10 t/ha /year of rice equivalent yield) and vermicompost unit (1.88 t/ha /year of rice equivalent yield). Similarly, the net returns from various components viz., crops (Rs.80, 795), Horticulture (Rs.38, 526), Dairy (Rs.4, 7278) and sheep unit (Rs.17, 876). The total quantity of produce recycled was (26,316 kg/l/nos) worth of Rs.43, 846 (three years average) was obtained. Effective recycling of farm waste in terms of vermicompost/compost can save Rs.12634 by addition of 1256 kg of nutrients in-terms of N, P & K. The total annual mandays generated out of various components varied from 515 to 932 mandays. Thus, we can conclude that adoption of integrated farming system improves the profitability and achieve sustainable production by effective recycling of natural resource in addition to meeting family needs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Phosphorus Deficiency on Phenolics and Antioxidants Content of Two African Nightshade Varieties Grown in Kenya

Ogembo Oyaro Joel, P. Nawiri, W. Musila, Joseph P. Gweyi-Onyango

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32424

Indigenous vegetables form an integral part of the Kenyan diets, most commonly consumed being the African nightshade. These vegetables contain important phenolics and antioxidants that have medicinal and good health attributes. Their production has strongly been associated with environmental stresses, and phosphorus as one the limiting nutrients had been suspected to play key role. To investigate the effect of phosphorus stress on Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Total Antioxidants Activity (TAA) on nightshade, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted. Two commonly grown varieties (Solanum villosum-SV and Solanum scabrum-SS) were planted in both conditions; done under long (May-July 2014) and short rain seasons (August-October 2014). It was laid as Randomized Complete Block Design with split plot arrangement. The two varieties were the main plot and phosphorus levels (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg/ha) constituted the subplot with four replicates. Gallic Acid (standard) Extraction method was used to analysis TPC. Diphenyl picryl hydrazyl method was used to analyze TAA where Vitamin C was standard. Data on TPC and TAA were recorded and later the effects resulting from these treatments analyzed using ANOVA and mean separation using Least Significant Difference (LSD) at p≤0.05. The TPC and TAA were significantly affected by different phosphorus levels (p≤0.05). TPC and TAA decreased with increase in phosphorus. SV had higher TPC and TAA (6.09 mg/g and 38.58% respectively) as compared to SS that had 5.49 mg/g (TPC) and 35.92% (TAA). SV had more phenolics and antioxidants in the shoots than roots, the converse was found for SS. Both varieties at 40 kgP/ha offered the best tradeoff between yield and secondary metabolites (phenolics and antioxidants). Study recommends 40 kgP/ha as it had the highest levels of phenolics and antioxidants. Further research needs to be done on other important antioxidants like anthraquinones and how different levels of macronutrients affect their production.