Open Access Minireview Article

Strategic Analysis of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Market Chain in Ethiopia a Case of Humera District

Lemlem Woldegebriel Hagose

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31928

Humera is the well-known area in producing quality sesame seed. Both commercial and smallholder farmers involved but it can divide to individual farmer, Investors and farmer associations. About 30 percent of the country's total sesame seed production comes from Humera, Tigray. Sesame is a high-value edible oil that is exported to china, Japan, Israel, Turkey and the Middle East. Information for the analysis was collected through a desk study with secondary sources from internet and previous information. After reviewing available data, sesame value chain was identified. The PESTEC, quantitative and qualitative and other analysis was done. Due to different factors, the yield and productivity has been low with high post-harvest loses. These factors include high cost of production, ineffective disease, pest control measures, limited improved variety, poor market infrastructure, frequent droughts and erratic rainfall, disease and pests’ outbreaks, and poor infrastructural development. To reduce post harvest loses, stakeholders must work together to improve the income of smallholder farmers and investors as well as to increase the amount of sesame export.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey on Qualitative and Quantitative Traits of Winter Wheat under Different Irrigation Treatments Using Weighing Lysimeter in North China Plain

Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian, Ali Soleymani, Peter Oko Ogbaji, Xuzhang Xue

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32778

As the world’s population increases, water resources for agriculture become more restrictive and efficient water use takes on greater importance. In 2012-2013 experiment, Irrigation treatments were (I1): Irrigation before sowing (60 Liter), (I2): Irrigation before sowing (30 Liter) + before freezing (30 Liter); (I3): Irrigation before sowing (30 Liter) + before freezing (30 Liter) + Irrigation in the beginning of erecting stage (60 Liter) + Irrigation at flowering stage (60 Liter); (I4): Irrigation before sowing (30 Liter) + Irrigation before freezing (30 Liter) + Irrigation at the booting stage (60 Liter) + Irrigation at flowering stage (60 Liter). The weighing lysimeter system is located in National Precision Agriculture Demonstration Station in Xiaotangshang Town of Beijing. The maximum and the minimum LAI was achieved in I3 (5.96), and I1 (5.25), which had meaningful difference with each other. The highest grain yield, harvest index, potassium percentage and ash percentage of forage wheat at flowering stage was obtained by I4. The maximum total biological yield, forage protein percentage, seed phosphorus percentage and seed potassium percentage was related to I3, but it had no significant differences with I4. The higher a thousand seed weight was obtained by I4 (34.85 g), followed by I3 (31.93 g), I2 (30.33 g), and I1 (28.76 g). The results from the study indicate that irrigation of winter wheat throughout the booting stage and flowering stage increased grain yield, harvest index, potassium percentage, ash percentage of forage wheat at flowering stage, seed and forage protein percentage. In 2013-2014 experiment, Irrigation treatments were (I1) no irrigation, (I2) irrigation only at jointing stage(60L), (I3) irrigation at jointing(60L) and flowering stage(60L), (I4) irrigation at jointing stage (April 8th,60L), 100% flowering stage (April 30th,60L), and grain filling period (May 10th,60L). The highest spike number per lysimeter was related to full irrigation (I4), but it had no significant differences with other treatments (P>0.05). I4 had obtained the highest grain yield which was 7.55 ton/ha. Grain yield in I1 and I2 was 4.49 ton/ha and 4.65 ton/ha, respectively. The maximum and the minimum harvest index was related to I4 (44.79%) and I2 (37.97%), which had significant differences with each other. Therefore, on the basis of results of these two experiments, it is important to irrigate winter wheat throughout the booting stage and flowering stage in order to achieve higher yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Alectra vogelii Benth to Different Crop Root Exudates

Cliven Njekete, Joanah Midzi, Bhekumthetho Ncube, Tendai Madanzi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/29694

Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of root exudates from cowpea, groundnut, maize, sorghum and pearl millet genotypes on the germination and attachment of Alectra vogelii. It also aimed to identify functional groups in the powdered root samples that stimulate A. vogelli germination.

Study Design: In the laboratory, a Complete Randomised Design (CRD) replicated six times with six treatments; cowpea (IT18, CBC2 and CBC3); groundnuts (Nyanda), maize (PAN 413), sorghum (Landrace) pearl millet (Landrace) and a negative control (distilled water) were used.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agronomy Laboratory, Midlands State University Gweru, Zimbabwe (19°25’S and 29°50’E), between March 2014 to May 2014.

Methodology: To assess the germination and attachment of A. vogelii seeds, three seeds from each genotype were placed on a moistened filter paper in a petri dish with 0,01 g of preconditioned A. vogelii seeds. Identification of functional groups from the powdered root samples of all the crop genotypes using the FT-IR spectroscopy was also done.

Results: Significant differences (P<.05) in the germination of A. vogelii were observed among the crop genotypes. All Cowpea genotypes and groundnut showed no statistical differences and had the highest germination percentages ranging between 72%-80%. The pearl millet landrace (62%) and groundnut (72%) also showed no statistical differences. Sorghum and maize allowed for low germination percentages (29.6% and 24.5%, respectively) Significant differences were noted among attachment counts (P<.05), however, with no statistical differences noted among the three cowpea varieties, which had the highest counts recorded on attachments (123-139 attachments).  Significantly low counts on attachment were recorded in groundnut and all the cereals, ranging between 9-15 counts. The FT-IR spectra obtained from the root samples showed differences and similarities as revealed by the peaks (groundnut, CBC2 and PAN 413 - 8 peaks; IT 18, CBC3 and sorghum – 7 peaks; pearl Millet – 5 peaks).

Conclusion: Groundnut and pearl millet genotypes caused effective suicidal germination of A. vogelii seeds and therefore can be used as trap crops in Integrated Weed Management Program. Maize and sorghum did not effectively support germination or attachment. Use of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry to identify and quantify the strigolactones in each genotype is highly recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Water Stress and Rhizobial Inoculation on the Accumulation of Chlorophyll in Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) Cultivars

Eutropia V. Tairo, Kelvin M. Mtei, Patrick A. Ndakidemi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32306

Aims: To assess the effect of water stress periods and rhizobial inoculation in five (5) P. vulgaris (L.) cultivars.

Study Design: The experiment was designed in split-split plot and replicated 3 (three) times.

Place and Duration of Study: The field experiment was carried out for two consecutive seasons in the year 2014 and 2015, whereas, the screen house experiment was planted in a single season in the year 2016 at the Agricultural Seed Agency (ASA) farm in Arusha-Tanzania.

Methodology: The experiment consisted of 2 levels of rhizobia (with and without inoculation), two stress levels (with and without water stress) and five cultivars of P. vulgaris (L.) (KAT B9, KAT B1, F9 Kidney Selection, F8 Drought line and JESCA). The stress period of 10 days were imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of plant growth by not irrigating. Chlorophyll was extracted using dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). Absorbance values were read at 645 nm and 663 nm by 2800 UV/Vis Spectrophotometer.

Results: Results indicated that leaf chlorophyll content was higher in rhizobial inoculated and non-stressed water treatments. Leaf chlorophyll content was significantly higher in varieties 3(F9 Kidney Selection) and 2(KAT B1) as compared with varieties 1(KAT B9), 4(F8 Drought line) and 5(JESCA). Significant interactions were observed between rhizobial inoculation x water stress and bean varieties.

Conclusion: Rhizobial inoculation and adequate water supply significantly improved leaf chlorophyll content in the tested cultivars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ambient and Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Growth, Physiological and Nutrient Uptake Parameters of Perennial Leguminous Cover Crops under Low Light Intensities

Virupax C. Baligar, Marshall Elson, Zhenli L. He, Yuncong Li, Arlicelio de Q. Paiva, Dario Ahnert, Alex-Alan F. Almeida, Nand K. Fageria

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32790

Adaptability and optimum growth of cover crops in plantation crops is affected by the inherent nature of the cover crop species and the light intensity at canopy levels. Globally concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are increasing and this creates higher photosynthesis and nutrient demand by crops as long as the light intensity is adequate. An experiment was undertaken to assess effects of ambient (400 µmol mol-1) and elevated (700 µmol mol-1) levels of [CO2] on the growth and physiological parameters and nutrient use efficiency in five selected tropical perennial legume cover crops (Calopo/frisolla, Jack bean, Brazilian lucerne, Leucaena, and Mucuna) under low levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD; 100, 250, and 450 µmol m-2 s-1). Overall, total dry biomass, root dry biomass, root/shoot ratio, and stem height were significantly influenced by levels of [CO2] and PPFD and cover crop species. With some exceptions, these growth parameters showed significant interactions between cover crop species x [CO2] and cover crop species x PPFD. In all the cover crops tested, increasing levels of [CO2] and PPFD increased RGR, NAR, WUE and SPAD, and decreased water flux (VO). With few exceptions, overall macro-micronutrient concentrations were significantly influenced by levels of [CO2] and PPFD and species. Macro-micronutrient uptake levels were significantly influenced by cover crop species; however with few exceptions, levels of PPFD also had significant effects on uptake of all nutrients. Across crop species, increasing [CO2] and PPFD increased uptake of all nutrients and this was a reflection of higher shoot dry matter accumulations at the higher levels of [CO2] and PPFD. Nutrient influx (IN) of all the nutrients was significantly influenced by crop species. However, with few exceptions levels of [CO2] and PPFD and their interactions had no effects on IN of nutrients. Cover crop species and levels of [CO2] and PPFD and the interaction of PPFD x species had significant effects on nutrient transport (TR). Macro-micronutrient use efficiency was significantly influenced by levels of [CO2], PPFD and crop species. Brazilian lucerne and Jack bean were efficient in nutrient use efficiency of N, K, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Mn; while Calopo and Leucaena were efficient in Zn use efficiency and Leucaena was efficient in P use efficiency.