Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Moisture Stress and Nitrogen Supply Affect the Growth Characteristics and Yield of Upland Rice Cultivars

Emmanuel P. Momolu, Jimmy Lamo, Sylvester Katuromunda

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/30318

Aims: To assess the effect of soil moisture stress and nitrogen fertilizer application on the growth characteristics and yield of upland rice cultivars.

Study Design: Completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement.

Place and Duration of Study: National Crops Resources Research Institute, Namulonge, Uganda between March and July 2015.

Methodology: The experiment comprised four nitrogen (N) application levels (0 as control, 40, 80 and 120 kg N/ha) as main plots and four soil moisture levels (25% as control, 15, 10 and 5%) as sub-plots.

Results: Plant heights for stressful moisture levels (15, 10 and 5%) at all N levels were lower (P < .001) than those of the control treatments at the respective N levels. Also, rice plants under stressful treatments at each N level took longer (P < .001) to mature when compared with the control treatments at the respective N levels. Subjecting rice plants that were supplied with 0 kg N/ha to moisture stress did not significantly (P > .05) affect the number of panicles produced when compared with the control. Under the 40 kg N/ha level, number of panicles produced by rice plants subjected to 15 and 10% moisture stress levels (3.56 and 4.00) were significantly lower than those of the control (6.00). For the 80 and 120 kg N/ha levels, number of panicles decreased significantly at all moisture stress levels when compared with the respective control treatments. Subjecting rice plants to moisture stress at the 40, 80 and 120 kg N/ha levels significantly (P < .001) reduced the grain yield when compared with the respective control treatments.

Conclusion: Namche-3 rice cultivar performed optimally when subjected to 15% moisture stress and 120 kg N/ha application rate. Thus, farmers growing Namche-3 rice in areas with limited soil moisture may apply N at 120 kg/ha if they are to realize better grain yields.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Release Pattern from Compost Supplemented with Jatropha Cake on Alfisol of Ilorin, Nigeria

Adebayo Abayomi Olowoake

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32523

The mineralization of nutrients from compost supplemented with Jatropha cake was examined on an Alfisol of Ilorin, Nigeria with a view to determining its potential for fertility improvement.

Two kilogram soil (0-15 cm depth) was weighed into plastic pots, replicated three times and arranged in a completely randomized design. Compost Aleshinloye Grade B (un-amended compost) augmented with jatropha cake in different proportions was applied at the rate of 10 t /ha to each pot. The soil in the pot was incubated with the following treatments: AJ (30% Aleshinloye Grade B + 70% Jatropha cake), BJ (40% Aleshinloye Grade B + 60% Jatropha cake), CJ (50% Aleshinloye Grade B + 50% Jatropha cake), DJ (60% Aleshinloye Grade B + 40% Jatropha cake) including control (CO). At the end of 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks, the incubated soil were sampled and analyzed for pH, N, P, K, OC, Ca, NH4-N and  NO3-N contents. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA and cluster analysis.

The results of Incubation of fertilizers applied increased soil pH. At 12 weeks, higher value (0.57cmol/kg) was obtained from mineralized exchangeable K by DJ treated soil. CJ significantly increased (P=.05) OC, NO3-N, NH4-N, total N and P. 

Thus the result of this finding suggests that 10 t /ha CJ (50% Aleshinloye Grade B + 50% Jatropha cake) significantly increased the N and P.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Optimum Plot Size and Shape from a Uniformity Trial for Field Experiment with Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Crop in Soil of Hisar

Nishu Lohmor, Mujahid Khan, Kiran Kapoor, Sudha Bishnoi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31613

A study of uniformity trial for assessing the nature and magnitude of soil variability and to determine the optimum size and shape of plots was conducted on 66A507 Pioneer hybrid of Sunflower crop at Research Farm of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana during the February 2014 to June 2014, on a field of size 35 m × 40 m which after eliminating border effects reduced to 32 m × 36 m. The total area (1152 m2) divided into 1152 basic units, each have size 1 m × 1 m and yield data of all the basic units was recorded separately for further investigations. The coefficient of variation of yield of individual harvested units was observed to be as high as 13.92 per cent indicating high degree of soil heterogeneity. The coefficient of variation decreased with increase in plot size in both the directions i.e. when plots were elongated in N-S direction or elongated in E-W direction and the decrease was near about same for both the directions but was more when plots were elongated in N-S direction (96.48 per cent decrease). The long-narrow plots elongated in N-S direction were found to be more useful than the compact and square plots. It was observed that the smallest plot has the maximum efficiency and the optimum plot size was estimated to be 2 m2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Characterization of Oil from Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotypes

Dhwani Sharma, Arunabh Joshi, Devendra Jain, P. B. Singh, R. C. Choudhary

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33492

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food item around the world. It is a crop that bears its seeds in underground pod, rather than on the aerial parts of the plant. The groundnut seeds or kernels have nearly 50 percent oil (triglycerides). Groundnuts is widely used in Asia and Africa to produce groundnut oil, which forms less smoke when frying than some other types of oils. In the present study various parameter for oil quality have been determined such as oil content (%), saponification value, iodine value, acid value and peroxide value in 24 genotypes of groundnut.  The oil content in genotype was UG-172 (46.43%) was maximum, followed by UG-174 (46.33%) whereas the genotype UG-184 (41.83%) had minimum oil content. Genotype GG7 showed maximum saponification i.e. 215.23 mg/gm, followed by UG172 i.e. 209 mg/gm while minimum saponification value found in UG181, 145.32 mg/gm. Maximum acid value was observed in genotype UG165 0.698 mg/gm and minimum acid was value observed in genotype UG160 0.060 mg/g. Maximum iodine value was seen in genotype UG181 and UG 172 i.e. 91.21 and 90.20, respectively. Minimum Iodine value was observed in genotype UG162 (55.90). Maximum peroxide value was found for genotype UG163 (45.60 milli equivalent peroxide / kg per sample) followed by minimum peroxide value in genotype UG160 9.30 milli equivalent peroxide / kg per sample.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bronopol (2-Bromo-2-Nitropropane-1, 3-Diol), A Chlorine Based Chemical Compound for the Management of Bacterial Leaf Blight of Rice

D. Pramesh, Maruti ., A. Saddam, K. M. Muniraju, G. S. Guruprasad

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32535

Aim: Present study was under taken to determine the field efficacy of a chlorine based chemical compound for the management of bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice.

Study Design: Randomized complete block design (RCBD).

Place and Duration of Study: All India Co-ordinated Rice improvement Programme, Agricultural Research Station, Gangavathi (5.4319° N, 76.5315° E), Karnataka, India, during autumn 2014 and 2015.

Methodology: Experiment was designed with six treatments of four replications each. A chlorine compound BIONOL (Bronopol 100%) was tested at 0.3-0.5 g/l along with Streptocycline (Streptomycin sulphate 90% + Tetracycline hydrochloride 10%) at 0.1 g/l, Copper oxychloride at 0.1 g/l and one treatment comprises the combination (Tank Mixture) of Streptocycline (0.1 g/l) and Copper oxychloride (0.1 g/l) for bioefficacy against BLB under field condition. Bio-efficacy was evaluated by spraying all the test chemicals after the initiation of the disease symptoms.

Results: The test chemical BIONOL at 0.5 g/l was found effective, recorded least Percent Disease Index (PDI) of 16.7 (Pooled average). BIONOL at 0.3 g/l performed statistically on par with Streptocycline at 0.1 g/l and also with tank mixture of Streptocycline at 0.1 g/l Streptocycline at 0.1 g/l­­ + Copper oxychloride at 0.1 g/l. Significant increase in the grain yield was observed in the plots treated with test chemical BIONOL 0.5 g/l (60.31 q/h) compare to the other treatments which recorded yield in the range of 42.82-55.51 q/h.

Conclusion: Here we report the efficacy of bronopol (2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1, 3-diol), a chlorine based chemical compound at 0.5 g/l in managing the BLB disease of rice under field condition.