Open Access Original Research Article

Pedological Characterization and Soil Classification of Selected Soil Units of Morogoro District, Tanzania

S. M. Lufega, B. M. Msanya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32681

The study aimed at provision of research information by pedological characterization of soil units of Morogoro District, Tanzania. Three soil units were selected coupled with field reconnaissance survey. Soil pedons were characterized at Kiziwa (KZW-P1), Mkambarani (MKA-P1) and Fulwe (FUL-P1). Pedons were observed to be formed from in-situ weathering of granitic rocks under ustic moisture and iso-hyperthermic temperature regimes. Thirteen soil samples were described and analyzed for physica-chemical and mineralogical properties. KZW-P1 and FUL-P1 had red dark brown sandy clay and gravely clay (MKA-P1) top soils overlaying mainly clayey subsoil. Both pedons indicate clay eluviation-illuviation as a dominant pedogenic process with slightly acidic condition and P<7 except FUL-P1 with 23.8 mg/kg P in top soils. Organic carbon is low in both pedons while total N is low to very low. CEC values for both pedons are 33.8, 26.4 and 27 cmol(+)/kg respectively. CIA values indicates intermediate to strong level of weathering. In USDA Soil Taxonomy and the FAO-UNESCO soil classification system, Soils were classified as: Kiziwa Ultisols (Alisols), and Inceptisols (Cambisols) for Fulwe and Mkambarani, reflecting their differences in potentials and constraints and hence use and management. The results reflects variations in soil characteristics both vertically and laterally so as to account for spatial linkages within the landscape.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Compost on Incidence and Severity of Okra Mosaic Disease and Fruit Yield and Quality of Two Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) Cultivars

Kwame Agyei Frimpong, Elvis Asare-Bediako, Ransford Amissah, Daniel Okae-Anti

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32753

Poor soil fertility, viral diseases and pest infestations are major constraints on the production of okra in Africa. The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of compost in minimizing okra mosaic disease (OMD), flea beetle infestation and improving the yield and quality of okra. In a pot and two field experiments (conducted in 2014 major and minor seasons), compost was incorporated at 0 kg N ha-1, 100 kg N ha-1 and 200 kg N ha-1 with three replicates, in a randomised complete block design using Asontem and Enidaso okra varieties as test crops. Results indicated that compost application yielded significantly higher plant height, and dry matter content and nutrients in the harvested okra plants than the control. High levels of compost application significantly improved the soluble carbon, crude fibre and crude fat content of okra fruits but did not significantly affect moisture and protein contents. Application of compost also reduced incidence and severity of OMD, but did not significantly influence the population of flea beetles that infested the okra plants. Asontem variety was more susceptible to OMD, recording significantly higher disease incidence and severity than Enidaso. The study has demonstrated that the compost application has the potential to enhance the fertility status of tropical soils to increase growth, yield and nutrient composition as well as decreasing incidence of OMD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Tillage Practices on Growth and Yields of Pearl Millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.] Cultivars under Rainfed Conditions of Western Rajasthan

Jitendra Kumar Verma, N. K. Pareek, Bhawana Saharan, Hari Singh, Vimal Khinchi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32678

An experiment comprising of four tillage practices in main and four cultivars of pearl millet in sub plots was laid out in split plot design with four replications and conducted during kharif 2014 at College of Agriculture, Bikaner. The results indicated that practice of conventional tillage + ridging and zero tillage + ridging was at par from each other in respect of growth and yield attributes (plant height, DMA at 45, 60 DAS and at harvest, effective tillers plant-1). Conventional tillage + ridging and zero tillage + ridging significantly increased the grain yield by a magnitude of 11.17 and 10.06 per cent, respectively over zero tillage. The field water use efficiency (FWUE) was influenced significantly by various tillage treatments. The treatment zero tillage + ridging recorded the highest net return ( 25,546 ha-1) and B:C ratio (3.69:1). Significantly higher effective tillers plant-1, grain yield and harvest index were observed in pearl millet hybrids in comparison to composite cultivars and the hybrid cultivar MPMH-17 recorded the highest grain yield (1423 Kg ha-1) and harvest index (30.4%). However, plant height (cm) and straw yield were higher in composites than hybrids. The hybrid cultivars recorded higher FWUE than composites. The hybrid cultivar MPMH-17 also fetched the highest net return ( 25,482 ha-1), however, it was at par with Cv. RHB 177. The maximum B:C ratio (3.44:1) was also observed with Cv. MPMH 17.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Particles on Germination of Maize (Zea mays L.) Seeds

Dharam Singh Meena, H. M. Jayadeva, Chirag Gautam, Hari Mohan Meena

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33687

The Lab experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2016-17 in the laboratory of Department of Agronomy, Gandhi Krishi Vigyana Kendra (G.K.V.K), University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Bengaluru with different concentrations of nano zinc oxide (800 ppm, 1000 ppm, 1200 ppm 1400 ppm and 1600 ppm) to assess the performance of maize seedling. Among the different concentrations of nano zinc oxide 1000 and 1200 ppm recorded 100 percent germination of maize seeds. However, 1200 ppm nano zinc oxide recorded higher root length (6.5 cm), shoot length (3.9 cm) and seed vigor index (1040) compared to other concentrations. Lowest germination was recorded under 1600 nano zinc oxide treatment (40%).

Open Access Review Article

Strategic Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica) Value Chain in Dilla Zuriya District, Dilla Ethiopia

Mesay Adugna Kassa

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31883

Dilla Zuriya has a suitable agro-climatic condition for production of horticultural crops. There are ample garden mango trees in Dilla zuriya at farmer’s holdings. The livelihood of most of these farmers is highly supplemented by the sale of mango fruits and other horticultural. The objective of this study is to analysis value chain of mango in Dilla Zuriya district. The analysis of sub sector was done to identify general constraints and causes of the main problem. Information for the analysis of sub sector was gathered through an interview with agricultural officer of the district and desk study from a wide range of secondary sources. The analysis of gathered information done using value chain analysis and presented by chain map, PESTEC, SWOT and problem tree. Contextual factors surrounding Mango value chain were identified by the analysis. Dilla zuriya smallholder farmers earn less income from mango production because of post-harvest losses, low price of mango and low productivity that results in limited capital to improve their farm and low living standard. The yield is low as compared to other mango growing areas in Ethiopia. Most farmers are using poor harvest and post-harvest handling practices due to lack of awareness and lack post-harvest handling technologies. In addition, they are having limited access to central market. These problems are not caused because of a single actor. Solving these problems need collaboration between different stakeholders in the chain. Therefore, stakeholders must work hand in hand to improve the smallholder farmers’ income and sub sector in the district.