Open Access Original Research Article

Comparision of Growth Performance in Timber Tree Species Cultivated under Drip Irrigation on Farm Lands

A. Balasubramanian, C. N. Hari Prasath, S. Radhakrishnan, S. Manivasakan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33913

A field experiment was conducted at Forest College and Research Institute, Mettupalayam, Tamil Nadu, India to study the growth performance of Neolamarckia cadamba, Acrocarpus fraxinifolius and Dalbergia sissoo under drip irrigation. The biometric attributes viz., height, basal diameter and diameter at breast height (DBH) were studied during 3 month after planting (MAP), 6 MAP, 9 MAP and 12 MAP. Among the three fast growing tree species, Neolamarckia cadamba exhibited a maximum height of 4.40 m, basal diameter of 5.31 cm and DBH of 5.03 cm followed by Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (Height of 3.99 m, basal diameter of 4.52 cm and DBH of 4.26 cm) and minimum in Dalbergia sissoo (Height of 3.37 m, basal diameter of 3.45 cm and DBH of 3.96 cm). The drip technology in tree species responded well to the drip irrigation system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Legume Cover Crops on Soil Moisture and Orange Root Distribution

J. M. Mulinge, H. M. Saha, L. G. Mounde, L. A. Wasilwa

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32934

Inadequate rain is a major hindrance to soil moisture and crop root growth in arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya. A field study was conducted in Ganda, Vitengeni and Matuga locations within the coastal lowland region of Kenya from May, 2012 to April, 2015 to evaluate the effects of three leguminous cover crops on soil moisture retention and orange tree feeder root distribution. Treatments included mucuna (Mucuna pruriens), cowpea (Vignaunguiculata), dolichos (Lablab purpureus) cover crops and unplowed fallow of natural vegetation as a control. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) and each treatment was replicated four times. Data collected were: soil particle size distribution, soil moisture content and orange dry root density. The data collected was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using procedures of R statistical analysis version 3.3.2. Mean separation was done using the least significant difference (LSD) value at 5% level of significance. Results indicated that mucuna, dolichos and cowpea cover crops significantly (P=.05) increased soil moisture content. The mucuna treated plots recorded an increase in SMC by 39.0% and 33%, dolichos increased by 34.4% and 28.9% and cowpea by 33.6% and 27.3% at soil depth 0-20 and 20-40 cm, respectively, over their own controls. Mucuna and dolichos significantly (P=.05) increased orange feeder root distribution. Mucuna treated plots supported the highest increase in orange root distribution by 36.5% and 31.8%, dolichos increased by 30.2% and 34.1% while cowpea increased by 18.3% and 18.8% in soil depth 0-20 and 20-40 cm respectively compared to their own control. It can be concluded that the three legumes; mucuna, cowpea and dolichos cover crop improved soil moisture and root distribution in orange production. The overall ranking was as follows: mucuna > dolichos > cowpea. From the finding, the use of mucuna and dolichos cover cropping system is recommended as a soil management practice aimed at improving the orange productivity. Further evaluation on the long term (>3 years) effects of cover crops on soil moisture and orange root distribution under different agro ecological zones is suggested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Rooting Media, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization on the Seedling Growth of Gmelina (Gmelina) and Teak (Tectona)

O. O. Onasanya, T. B. Olowoboko, B. M. Thanni, R. A. Adegbayi, J. O. Azeez

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32878

The rising increase in the quest for wood materials necessitates the need to produce more within the shortest time. This can be achieved by increasing the seedling growth of the tree species either by improving the fertility level of the rooting medium or using the most suitable rooting medium, thus necessitating the study. This study was laid out in a completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments include rooting media levels (soil, sawdust, soil: sawdust 1:1, 1:2, 2:1) and poultry manure (0, 5, 10 t ha-1) for the first experiment while the second experiment involved varying rates of N fertilizers (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 kg ha-1) and P fertilizers (0, 45 and 90 kg ha-1). It involved two pot experiments carried out concurrently at the agro forestry arboretum of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta with each set transplanted to gmelina and tectona seedlings. Data were collected on plant height, stem girth and number of leaves fortnightly for 16 weeks. There was significant increase in height, stem girth and number of leaf gmelina at all weeks while tectona significantly increased only in height and stem girth using soil as a medium in comparison to other rooting media. N and P fertilizers produced no significant effect on the seedling growth of both tree seedlings. The use of N and P fertilizers on the seedling growth of the tree species was not encouraging as results obtained weeks after transplanting were not consistent. However, if there is a need for its use, 60 kg N ha-1 and 45 kg P ha-1 produced desirable seedling growth parameters. It is concluded that the use of soil and application of poultry manure at 5 t ha-1 remains the most effective rooting medium for gmelina and tectona seedlings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of N, Zn and B Levels on Yield, N, Zn and B Concentration, Uptake and N Use Efficiency in Maize –Wheat Sequence in a Vertisol

P. S. Kulhare, G. T. Yedke, G. D. Sharma, G. S. Tagore

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33135

A field experiment was conducted during 2010-12 at Research Farm of Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh) to study the effect of levels of N (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1), Zn (0, and 10 kg ha-1) and B (0 and 1.0 kg ha-1) on yield, N, Zn and B concentration, uptake and N use efficiency by maize and wheat in maize–wheat sequence in a Vertisol. The treatments of N were applied to maize and wheat crop. While the treatments of Zn and B were applied to only maize crop and their residual effect was observed in wheat crop. Application of increasing levels of N in maize and wheat significantly increased the yield, B concentration in grain and strover/straw and N, Zn and B uptake by maize and wheat over their respective control. The N application of 120 and 180 kg ha-1 in wheat significantly increased the N, Zn and B concentration in grain and straw of wheat over control. The N use efficiency by maize and wheat significantly decreased with increasing levels of N.

The application of 10 kg Zn, 1.0 kg B and combined application of 10 kg Zn + 1.0 kg B and its residual effect significantly increased the grain yield, N uptake, Zn and B concentration in grain and their uptake by maize and wheat, respectively over control. The B application of 1.0 kg ha-1 and its residual effect was found significantly superior to 10 kg Zn ha-1 for grain yield, B concentration in grain, N, Zn and B uptake by maize and wheat, respectively.The B application of 1.0 kg ha-1 significantly increased the N use efficiency by maize over control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spread Sheets for Laterals Spacing Design Application on Mit Kenana Area in Egypt

Alaa Nabil El-Hazek

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32845

Mit Kenana area, 40 km North of Cairo, represents the eastern fringes of the Nile Delta in Egypt. Existing laterals spacing design of Mit Kenana area is reviewed. Then spread sheets are employed to obtain laterals spacing, which is referred to as spread sheet design. Microsoft Excel software, as instance for spread sheets, is employed to get the laterals spacing design of steady state subsurface drainage systems. The most suitable and popular Hooghoudt equation is used to get the spacing L, including the equivalent depth. Given data are depth to the impermeable layer, radius of the pipe lateral, hydraulic conductivities of the soil above and below drain level, elevation of the water table midway between the drains, and drainage rate. The lateral spacing L is assumed. Calculations are done through the spread sheet and the final result of L is obtained. Check for the obtained L is established with respect to the assumed value. Also, another check is employed for the equivalent depth de.

Almost identical results are accomplished by spread sheet design compared with the existing design. Laterals spacing design for steady state subsurface drainage systems employing spread sheets is efficient, accurate, quick, easy and simple.