Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Integrated Nutrient Management on Root Growth, Flowering and Quality of Seed in French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Jayashri Barcchiya, S. S. Kushwah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/34260

Aims: This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of integrated nutrient management on root growth, flowering and quality of seed in french bean.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized design with three replications. The treatments consist of six nutrient levels viz., N1:Vermicompost (10t/ha) + PSB (15 g/kg seed) + P2O5 (80 kg/ha) + K2O (80 kg/ha), N2: Vermicompost (10 t/ha)  + Rhizobium (15 g/kg seed) + PSB (15 g/kg seed) + P2O5 (80 kg/ha) + K2O (80 kg/ha), N3: Vermicompost (10 t/ha) + N (25 kg/ha) + Rhizobium (15 g/kg seed) + PSB (15 g/kg seed) + P2O5 (80 kg/ha) + K2O (80 kg/ha), N4: Vermicompost(10 t/ha) + N (50 kg/ha) + Rhizobium (15 g/kg seed) + PSB (15 g/kg) + P2O5 (80 kg/ha) + K2O (80 kg/ha), N5: Vermicompost(10 t/ha) + N (75 kg/ha) + Rhizobium (15 g/kg seed) + PSB (15 g/kg) + P2O5 (80 kg/ha) +   K2O (80 kg/ha), N6: Vermicompost (10 t/ha) + N (100 kg/ha) + Rhizobium (15 g/kg seed) + PSB (15 g/kg) + P2O5 (80 kg/ha) + K2O (80 kg/ha) and three varieties viz., Arka Komal (V1), Contender (V2), and Swarna Priya (V3). 

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out at vegetable research field Department of Vegetable Science College of Horticulture, Mandsaur campus of RVSKVV Gwalior during rabi season 2013-14.

Methodology: Biofertilizer viz. Rhizobium and PSB (Phosphorus Solubilising Bacteria) cultures were applied as seed treatment. Well decomposed vermicompost was incorporated in soil and mixed thoroughly as basal dose. Full dose of phosphorus, potash and ½ dose of nitrogen were applied as basal dose and ½ dose of nitrogen was applied as split one month after sowing. The source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash were urea, SSP and MOP, respectively. Sowing of healthy seed was done at a spacing of 45 cm × 15 cm. Recommended agronomic and plant protection practices were followed for raising healthy crop.

Results: The findings revealed significant effect of varieties and nutrient levels on root growth, flowering and quality of seed in French bean. Among the different varieties of french bean, Swarna Priya recorded maximum fresh {52.44, 2655.22, 5611.38 and 3447.83 g at 30, 45, 60 days after sowing (DAS) and harvest stage, respectively} and dry (27.61, 32.05, 2454.33 and 2520.22 g at 30, 45, 60 DAS and harvest stage, respectively) weight of root. Earliest first flowering (24.22 days) was commenced in Contender. Lowest number of node (4.08) of first flower appearance was observed with variety Arka Komal. Highest test weight (58.90 g), crude protein content (42.31%), germination percentage (90.27) in seed, seed vigour index I (20262) and seed vigour index II (36.09) were found with Swarn Priya.  Out of six nutrient levels application of N4 {Vermicompost(10 t/ha) + N (50 kg/ha) + Rhizobium (15 g/kg seed) + PSB (15 g/kg) + P2O5 (80 kg/ha) + K2O (80 kg/ha)} recorded highest quality attributes of seed. Though it caused delay in flowering and lesser root growth as compared to lower levels of nutrients but was better than higher levels of nutrients.

Conclusion: Among the different varieties of french bean, Swarna Priya showed superior performance for root growth attributes and seed quality. Though, it was late in first flower appearance. Among the nutrient levels N4 resulted in the superior quality of seed in french bean. Though it had delayed flowering and lesser root growth as compared to lower levels of nutrients but was better over higher levels of nutrients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating Salicornia as a Potential Forage Crop to Remediate High Groundwater-Table Saline Soil under Continental Climates

C. Yucel, M. J. Farhan, A. M. Khairo, G. Ozer, M. Cetin, I. Ortas, K. R. Islam

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33833

Salicornia is a leafless C3 annual halophyte with a greatest economic potential. A field study was conducted to evaluate Salicornia (Salicornia europaea) biomass production and feed quality and its effect on soil quality in the Mediterranean Karatas-Adana region of the Southern Turkey. Salicornia biomass, groundwater, and soils were randomly sampled from adjoining Unprotected (uncontrolled mixed grazing) and Protected (no grazing) sites. Results showed that the Protected site produced a higher amount of total (shoot and root), root, and shoot fresh biomass by 22, 45, and 12%, respectively as compared with the Unprotected site. Total, root, and shoot dry biomass production was also higher in the Protected site. Biomass collected from the Protected site had a significantly lower content of acid detergent fiber, but higher content of digestible dry-matter and relative feed values than in biomass collected from the Unprotected site. Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) contents were 1.9 and 1.8 times higher in the Protected site than in the Unprotected site. Groundwater and soil electrical conductivities were significantly lower in the Protected site than in the Unprotected site. While the soil microbial biomass, active carbon, and intermediate C pools were 36, 21 and 56% higher, respectively, the specific maintenance respiration rates were lower (by 23%) in the Protected site than in the Unprotected site. Results suggested that increased biomass yield of Salicornia with higher feed quality under Protection could be used as a forage crop to remediate coastal saline soils with a high water-table.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Land Suitability and Water Requirements for Different Crops in Dakhla Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

Mohamed E. Fadl, Ahmed S. Abuzaid

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33835

Land reclamation projects in Egypt have been directed towards the Western Desert; however, such expansion requires devoting land and water resources to the optimum use. Hence, the current work aimed at assessing land suitability and water requirements for various crops in an area located west of Dakhla Oasis. The geomorphic features were identified after the processing of Landsat 8.0 satellite image and Digital elevation model (DEM) verified by field and ground studies. Samples of thirty-one soil profiles and eleven water wells were collected and analyzed. Land suitability was assessed using MicroLEIS software with an Almagra model. The main geomorphic units are plateau, pediplain, depression and sand sheets. About 97% of the soils are suitable (high, moderate and marginal) for maize, sunflower, soya bean, wheat, sugar beet, cotton, watermelon, alfalfa, potato, peach, citrus, and olive. Water requirements for each crop were calculated using FAO–Cropwat model as 816.33, 795.98, 1003.83, 550.78, 865.13, 1150.83, 797.87, 2113.47, 397.37, 1577.86, 1503.92 and 1163.96 mm, respectively. The area has water resources with high quality for irrigation, and thus it is considered promising for agricultural expansion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield Responses of Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) to Organic Wastes in the Humid Agro-Ecological Zone of South-Eastern Nigeria

Mary Oluchi Iwuagwu, Dominic Aja Okpara, Cosmos Osita Muoneke

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32517

Aim: To evaluate the growth and yield responses of cocoyam to different rates of application of cow dung and rice husk.

Study Design: 2 x 4 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design replicated three times.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), Mbato sub Station, Okigwe, Imo State, Nigeria in 2012 and 2013 cropping seasons.

Methodology: The treatments comprised of two manure sources (cow dung and rice husk) at four levels (0, 10, 20 and 30 t/ha) each. The treatments were assigned randomly to the plots and incorporated into the soil two weeks before planting. Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, number of suckers, number of corms, corm weight and corm yield. The data collected were subjected to ANOVA at 5% probability level.

Results: Cocoyam growth and yield increased significantly (P = 0.05) with increased application of cow dung up to 20 t/ha when the soil had 0.03% N and 0.65% OM in 2012, but not beyond the rate of 10 t/ha in 2013 when the soil had 0.06% N and 1.22% OM. Average of the two years of cropping gave optimum yield of 18.0 t/ha at 20 t/ha cow dung rate. This rate increased yield by 58% over the control. Rice husk applied at 30 t/ha significantly (P = 0.05) increased cocoyam growth compared to the other rates while cocoyam yield was not significantly increased above the rate of 20 t/ha rice husk in 2013. 20 t/ha rice husk recorded yield of 17 t/ha, which was higher than the control by 19%, on the average.

Conclusion: Results of this investigation showed that cow dung and rice husk are potential organic soil amendments for increasing cocoyam production. It is therefore reasonable to recommend the use of 10-20 t/ha cow dung and 20 t/ha  rice husk in the cultivation of cocoyam in humid agro-ecological zone of South-eastern Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wood Ash in Canavalia ensiformis L. Cultivation on Highly Weathered Soil in Brazil

Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Marcel Thomas Job Pereira, Julyane Vieira Fontenelli, Janaína M. Gonçalves Carvalho, Alessana Franciele Schlichting, Tonny José Araújo José Araújo da Silva

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/34097

The aim of study was to avaliate the productive and structural features of Canavalia ensiformis L. resulting from the wood ash acting as a soil corrective and fertilizer in the Oxisol. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse, from April to July 2012, in the Municipality of Rondonópolis, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The experiment, with Oxisol, use as of six wood ash doses (0.0, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12.0 and 15.0 g dm-3). Harvesting of the Canavalia ensiformis L. was done 60 days post germination, in plastic pots of 4 dm-3 capacity, to which the wood ash doses had been administered 20 days prior to planting. At the time of flowering, the following measurements were recorded, plant height, indirect chlorophyll index of leaf, stem diameter, leaf number count, soil pH, dry mass of shoot, dry mass of root, numbers and dry mass of the Rhizobia-rich root nodules. The findings were then submitted to the analysis of variance and regression test, up to p=0.05 significance. The wood ash acted as a corrective and induced a pH increase, enhancing the soil chemistry. Influencing the number of leaves, dry mass of leaves and nodules. The other variables analyzed, which were adjusted to the quadratic regression model, demonstrated improved results when 9 to 12 g dm-3 of wood ash per pot were added.