Open Access Original Research Article

Standardization of Protocol for Isolation of High Quality Genomic DNA from Polyphenol and Polysaccharide Containing Pyrus Species

Z. A. Bhat, W. S. Dhillon, T. R. Rather, Rizwan Rashid, H. U. Rehman, W. Shafi, A. H. Mir

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33474

High quality DNA is a prerequisite for several molecular biology applications such as PCR, genomic library construction, endonuclease restriction digestion etc. For plant species like pear, having high polysaccharide and polyphenol, the availabble DNA extraction protocols do not yield good quality DNA. Moreover presence of polysaccharides and polyphenols causes browning of tissues and supernatant even after PVP supplementation. For isolating high quality DNA we optimized a simple and rapid protocol by modifying CTAB procedure through inclusion of 0.1N copper acetate in addition to PVP and several other modifications at different steps during extraction. The isolated DNA was free from polysaccharides, polyphenols, RNA and other contaminants. DNA was easily digestible with endonucleases, suitable for SSR based genetic diversity analysis and long term storage. The average yield of DNA ranged from 0.5 to 1 mg/g of sample. In addition to extraction of DNA, the DNA purification was also accompolished as a part of the protocol and not as a separate one, thus saving the time and labour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studying the Physico-edaphic and Hydraulic Conductivity of Phytoremediated Spent Oil Polluted Habitat

N. L. Edwin-Wosu, A. E. Nkang

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32948

Several studies have recorded effect of spent lubricant oil pollution on soil properties. This study aims at evaluating the ecology of waste oil pollution and the impact of phytoremediation on soil hydraulic conductivity vis-à-vis some edaphic properties using three leguminous plants; with the objectives of performing field and laboratory study of such contamination and impact of phytoremediation on such properties as soil texture and structure, particle density, bulk density, porosity, organic matter content and total hydrocarbon content and hydraulic conductivity. Using classical and conventional methods to assess the performance of these plant species, result showed a trajectory influence across pollution levels on the soil edaphic properties culminating to decrease in hydraulic conductivity. With the impact of phytoapplication P. pterocarpum had greater particle size (87.73%) of sand, particle density of 2.61 g/cm3 with significant difference (P=0.05) than C. retusa and L. leucocephala treated soils. A significantly (P=0.05) lower bulk density (0.83 g/cm3), increased porosity (68%) and reduced organic matter content (2.65%) were recorded in P. pterocarpum treated soil. Total hydrocarbon reduction (1.8 mg/g) content and its equivalent potency of greater removal and reduction (0.43 mg/g), high efficiency of 55% and 34.40 bioaccumulation quotient and a lower crusting hazard (24.63%) of sealing with increased hydraulic conductivity (5.73 ml/s) were recorded in P. pterocarpum treated soil. By the foregoing potency P. pterocarpum could be suggested as a good biological measure in integrated environmental remediation programmes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rhizosphere Effects of Melocanna baccifera on Soil Microbial Properties under Different Fallow Phases Following Shifting Cultivation

Ramchhanliana Hauchhum, S. K. Tripathi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/34493

Rhizosphere plays an important role in regulating soil fertility and nutrient cycling in different ecosystems. Bamboos are important secondary successional plants in fallow land that have strong impact on the soil fertility of different fallow lands. The main objectives of the present study is to examined the rhizosphere effects of bamboo (Melocanna baccifera) on soil microbial properties (soil organic carbon, SOC; total nitrogen, TN; microbial biomass C and N, MBC and MBN; dehydrogenase activity, DHA; acid phosphatase activity, APA; β-glucosidase activity, GSA) in rhizosphere (RS) and bulk soil (BS) in shifting cultivation stand with different fallow phase (2 years old, FP-2; 5 years old, FP-5; and 10 years old fallow, FP-10) in Mizoram. The result indicated that soil microbial properties were significantly higher (p<0.05) in RS compared to BS. Further, the level of microbial properties significantly increases in longer fallow (FP-10) compared to shorter fallow (FP-2 and FP-5). On contrary, magnitude of rhizosphere effect of M. baccifera was greater in shorter fallow phase compared to longer fallow phase for all microbial properties except in APA and GSA. It was concluded that the rhizosphere effect of bamboo in shorter fallow is microbial mediated under C and nutrient limited conditions and in longer fallow the same is regulated by the accumulated organic matter and the available nutrients. Further studies are needed to assess the changes in secondary successional plant rhizosphere microbes under different fallow phases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Agronet Covers to Reduce Pesticide Application for Yield Improvement and Profitability for Small Scale Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata) Growers

Saidi Mwanarusi, Muleke Everlyne M’mbone

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33585

Poor returns from open field cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata) production in sub-Saharan Africa are attributed to compromised yield due to high pest infestation. With chemical control measures becoming increasingly uneconomical and hazardous, relatively cheaper and eco-friendly alternative technologies are imperative. Two trials were conducted at the Horticulture Research and Teaching Field, Egerton University, Kenya to assess the yield and economic benefits of using agronet covers against major insect pests of cabbage. A randomized complete block design with six treatments replicated five times, was used. The treatments comprised of 0.4 mm and 0.9 mm pore diameter agronet covers maintained either by (i) opening thrice a week between 9.00 am and 5.00 pm or (ii) permanently covered except during routine crop maintenance, unprotected cabbage sprayed with insecticide and unprotected cabbage without any insecticide application (control). Agronet maintained permanently covered [u1] significantly reduced populations of cabbage aphids, diamondback moth, cabbage looper, mites, and leaf miners at P=0.05. Agronet covers reduced insecticide sprays per crop cycle from 11 to 1 and improved marketable cabbage head numbers by between 15.0-43.5% compared to the control and 2.1-27.3% compared to spraying with insecticides. Marketable head weight was higher by between 28.7-130.1% under agronets compared to the control and by 9.3-95.4% compared to spraying with insecticides. The highest cabbage marketable yields and net income on sales were obtained under the 0.9 mm pore diameter agronet maintained permanently covered which gave the highest cost benefit ratio of 1:17.1 in season one and 1:26.2 in season two. These results present permanent use of 0.9 mm pore diameter agronets as a viable technology in reducing insect pest infestation and cost of cabbage production. This is achieved through reduced pesticide use with a potential of contributing towards environmentally safe and profitable cabbage production by small-scale growers in sub-Saharan Africa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Initial Development of Cowpea Submitted to Wood Ash Doses

Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Thiago Henrique Castañon, Ronaldo Aparecido de Oliveira, Helon Hébano de Freitas Sousa, Tonny José Araújo da Silva, Willian Fenner

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/34135

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) constitutes one of the principal protein sources for the economically constrained low-income sector. The composition of the wood ash reveals macro and micronutrients, which form an alternative source of high-added value fertilizers, very suitable for low-cost farming systems. The aim of this study was to estimate the use of wood ash as a fertilizer during the early developmental stages of the cowpea. A randomized block design with four replications was selected for the experiment. It was performed in a greenhouse, in pots 1.5 dm-3 capacity, to which five wood ash doses (0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 g dm-3) were added. The following variables were analyzed, viz. plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, chlorophyll index, shoot and root dry masses, mass and number of nodules, water consumption and water use efficiency. Increased values of plant height, stem diameter and number of leaves were observed post the addition of the following doses of wood ash: 24.61, 23.25 and 27.03 g dm-3, respectively. The chlorophyll index, dry shoot and root masses, water consumption and water use efficiency rose to 54.18, 93.83, 90.50, 34.09 and 90.14%, respectively. No significant difference, however, was noted in the values for dry mass and number of nodules. The wood ash was found to promote conditions favorable to the initial development of the cowpea, and can be used as a corrective and a fertilizer for this culture. Based on this improvement in the fertility of the soil, it is safe to assume that there are also gains in sustainability and that the application of vegetal ash can contribute to combating soil degradation.