Open Access Original Research Article

Long-term Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Chemical and Microbial Properties of Soil under Rice (Oryza sativa L.)-Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) System in an Acid Alfisol

Swapana Sepehya, S. K. Subehia, Ibajanai Kurbah, Sushil Dhiman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/34510

Aims: The aim of the investigation was to see the long-term effect of integrated nutrient management (INM) on chemical and microbiological properties of soil after 17 cycles of a rice-wheat cropping system.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in an on-going long-term fertilizer experiment initiated during 1991 at CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Methodology: The experiment comprised of 8 treatment combinations viz., N, P and K fertilizer application as individual component and use of chemical fertilizers in conjunction with different organic sources i.e. farm yard manure (FYM), wheat straw (WS), and green manure (GM) with Sesbania aculeata to substitute 25 or 50% N through organics.

Results: The highest grain yield was 43.37 q ha-1 in treatment receiving 50% NPK + 50% N through FYM and lowest of 26.70 q ha-1 under control. The highest increase of organic carbon of about 55.2 per cent over control was observed under treatment receiving 50% N substituted through FYM during summer every year. Similarly, the highest soil microbial biomass carbon (248.50 mg kg-1), microbial biomass nitrogen (38.25 mg kg-1) and respiratory activities (153 mg kg-1) was observed in the same treatment.  Total nitrogen was highest (928 mg kg-1) under 50% NPK + 50% N through green manure in summer followed by 100% NPK in winter.

Conclusion: Application of 50% N through organics plus 50% NPK through chemical fertilizers was better than other treatments in improving chemical and microbiological properties of soil and in sustaining the crop yields.

Open Access Original Research Article

Selection of Wheat Genotype(S) for Drought Stress Based on Physiological Traits

Iqra Nowsherwan, Ghulam Shabbir, Saad Imran Malik, Muhammad Ilyas, Nasir Mahmood Cheema

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33720

Wheat, the world’s third important cereal, is cultivated in Pakistan both in irrigated and rainfed areas. One of the major constraints of wheat production in rainfed area is drought that needs to be addressed. Although many genotypes were released that were tolerant to drought stress by improving various physiological traits but there is a need to lessen the effects of drought to boost wheat productivity. The present study was designed to identify genotype(s) suitable under drought stress by analyzing various physiological traits such as relative water content, cell membrane stability, proline content and chlorophyll content under drought stress. The research material consisted of sixteen different wheat genotypes. The experiment was planted during winter 2013-14 following RCBD with three replications. Drought stress was induced by withholding water during heading and anthesis stages. High heritability, observed for relative water content, proline content and cell membrane stability, indicated that selection would be effective for these traits as they are heritable to next generation. Correlation analysis revealed that cell membrane stability and proline content were negatively correlated with relative water content while proline content was positively correlated with cell membrane stability. Yield was only positively correlated with chlorophyll content. Among tested wheat genotypes, Maxi-Pak, Chakwal 50 and WC 20 were identified as potential varieties that can be used in future wheat breeding programme for rainfed conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Propanil against Weeds in Direct Seeded Rice and Its Effect on Succeding Crop

Y. M. Ramesha, Manjunatha Bhanuvally, Ashok Kumar Gaddi, D. Krishamurthy, M. R. Umesh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33555

Aims: To assess the efficacy of propanil against weeds in direct seeded rice.

Place and Duration: A field study was conducted during Kharif 2015 and summer 2016, at Agricultural Research Station, Dhadesugur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka, India.

Methodology: An investigation comprises of eight treatments and replicated thrice. The weeds which were dominant in trials field are Echinichloa sp. Panicum repens, Leptochloa chinensis, Brachiaria mutica, Digitaria sanguinalis among grasses, Eclipta alba, Ludwigia parviflora and Commelina communis as broad leaf weeds and Cyperus sp. as sedge.

Results: Application of Propanil 80% DF @ 4 kg a.i./ha and twice hand weeded check at 30 and 45 days after sowing found significantly (p=0.05) superior over the application of Propanil 80% DF @ 3 kg a.i./ha and rest of the treatments in controlling the weeds in direct seeded rice and increases the grain yield of rice without any phytotoxic effect.

Conclusion: Propanil 80% DF @ 3 kg a.i./ha could be recommended for post-emergence application at 10 to 15 days after sowing of paddy crop to achieve effective control of weeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Variability Analysis of Soil Properties Using Geospatial Technique in Katni District of Madhya Pradesh, India

P. Dey, S. Karwariya, N. S. Bhogal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/34219

This study was conducted in Katni district of Madhya Pradesh India to map the spatial variability of major soil properties using geospatial technique. Surface soil samples of 505 locations (0-15 cm) were collected by random sampling strategy using GPS. Soil physico-chemical properties were measured in laboratory. In this paper we execute and compare the accuracy of various ordinary kriging methods. Spatial variability of soil physico-chemical properties was quantified through semi-variogram analysis and the relevant surface maps were prepared through ordinary kriging. Exponential model fits well with experimental semi-variogram of pH, OC, available N, P, K, S and Zn, where as in case of electric conductivity best fitted model was spherical. Coefficient of variation of soil properties showed large variability with greatest variation observed  in Zn (140%) while EC, OC, N, P, and K has displayed moderate spatial variation whereas the smallest variation was in pH (14.16% ). In case of EC and P the goodness of prediction (G) had a negative value while N, P, K, pH, Zn and S shows positive value. The pH value in north-east part of the study area was alkaline and in the south-west portion of area was acidic in nature. Correlation coefficient between soil nutrients shows strong positive relationship between Nitrogen and organic carbon (r= 0.955). Cross validation of kriged map shows that spatial prediction of soil nutrients using semi-variogram parameters is better than assuming mean of observed value for any un-sampled location.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Uptake in Maize as Influenced by NPK Fertilizer in Green House Experiment

T. B. Olowoboko, O. O. Onasanya, O. T. Salami, J. O. Azeez

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/34399

It is important to explore varying supply of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) for sustainable production of maize in green house environment. This necessitated the study to determine the effect of these nutrients on growth and nutrient uptake in maize. In this study, three separated pot experiments were conducted in a complete randomized block design with three replications. Treatments consisted of N,P, K as 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 kg N ha-1, 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 kg P ha-1 and 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 kg K ha-1 for the first, second and third experiment, respectively. Maize seeds of variety Swam 1 were sown in pots and N, P and K fertilizer treatments were applied two weeks after planting (WAP). Data of growth parameters of maize were collected fortnightly on plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf length, width and area for 8 weeks; dry matter yield and uptake were determined at the end of the experiments. The result showed that application of N at 120 kg ha-1 significantly increased plant height (66%), leaf number (96%) and dry matter accumulation in maize, whereas leaf area and P concentration (157%) significantly increased with  150 kg N ha-1. Significant increases in plant height (26%), girth, leaf area, leaf number (54%), shoot dry weight and N concentration were recorded with 60 kg P ha-1. However, the application of K at 180 kg ha-1 increased the plant height (16%), girth (61%), leaf number, leaf area (24%), leaf length (10%), leaf width (10%), concentration and uptake of N and K. It was concluded that maize growth and uptake was greatly influenced by N, P, K applications at 120 to 150 kg N ha-1, 60 kg P ha-1 and 180 kg K ha-1.