Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Zinc Application on Zn Content and Uptake in Grain, Husk and Straw of Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Manas Denre, Arvind Kumar, Ruplal Prasad, B. K. Agarwal, D. K. Shahi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33888

Aim: To assess the Zn content and uptake in grain, husk and straw of rice plant at maturity with and without Zn application under low land soils for hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Study and Design: The experiment was laid down in randomized block design (RBD) with three replications of each treatment.

Place and Duration of Study: The field experiments were conducted at farmer’s fields in three districts (i.e., Ranchi, Khunti and Lohardaga) of Jharkhand during Kharif season of the year 2015.

Methodology: The experiment was consisted of four levels of zinc (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 kg ha-1) applications. After harvesting the grain and straw were collected separately. Brown rice (de-husked rice) was separated by hand mill and the plant materials were processed with following standard procedure of washing, drying and grinding. Zn content in grain (brown rice/de-husked rice), husk and straw of rice plants were analyzed by digestion with tri acid mixture (HNO3: HClO4: H2SO4 in 10:4:1) and concentrations were read with the help of atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ECIL4139).

Results: Results indicated that the zinc contents and uptake in rice plant at maturity, significantly was influenced by various levels of zinc application. The higher concentration of Zn in grain, husk and straw was showed at 7.5 kg Zn ha-1 followed by 5.0 kg Zn ha-1 application. The magnitude of Zn concentration was found in an order; straw (88.32-124.77 mg kg-1)>grain (23.20-34.27 mg kg-1) >husk (20.37-30.80 mg kg-1).

Conclusion: It was observed that the zinc concentration and uptake was significantly influenced by various levels of zinc applications as compared to no zinc application. The magnitude of Zn concentration was found in an order; straw>grain>husk and it is concluded that the application of Zn in staple foods like rice may play a vital role in reducing Zn deficiency in humans and animals beings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variation of Soil Fertility with Diverse Hill Soils of Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

Masud Hassan, Rakib Hassan, Husna Israt Pia, Md. Arafat Hassan, Suriya Jesmine Ratna, Marufa Aktar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/34975

This study was carried out to evaluate chemical and nutritional properties in high, medium and low hill soils of three hilly district of Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. There were 30 hill sites and every hill site was a different hill with changeable slopes. A total number of 90 soil samples were collected from surface from three position of each hill for analysis. Results showed that chemical and nutritional properties varied for different hills. Mean values of soil pH, organic matter, total N, total P, Ca, Mg, K, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn of three different hill soils ranged from 5.00 to 5.35, 1.82 to 2.19 %, 0.09 to 0.17 %, 3.44 to 5.24 mg kg-1, 2.19 to 2.82 mg 100g-1, 1.39 to 1.62 mg 100 g-1, 0.29 to 0.49 mg 100 g-1, 5.97 to 10.85 mg kg-1, 0.23 to 0.25 mg kg-1, 0.24 to 0.67 mg kg-1, 44.48 to 67.63 mg kg-1, 16.28 to 20.84 mg kg-1, and 0.44 to 0.71 mg kg-1. Individually high, medium and low hill soils showed variation in chemical and nutritional properties for different sites. From this result it is assessed that the soils are generally poor in organic matter and nutrients as well as poor in fertility status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potassium Dynamics under Sub Surface Drip Fertigation System on Banana cv. Rasthali

M. Yuvaraj, P. P. Mahendran

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/35034

The soil sampling was done at emitting point (laterals placed at 25 cm depth of soil from surface) and 15 cm horizontally away from the emitting point of the same lateral. Similarly, the soil samples were also collected from 0-25, 25-50 and 50 – 75 cm depth of profile (vertical) between the drippers in 24 hours after fertigation at flowering stage of the crop. The soil was air dried, powdered and passed through a 2 mm sieve and stored in clean polythene bags.  The available potassium both in horizontal and vertical dimensions were mapped by using Surfer 7 software. The main aim of this study is to known potassium distribution at different depth in sub surface drip fertigation system in banana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sulphur and Chlorine Effects on Yield and Quality in Fresh Corn

Tinashe Zenda, Daxuan Yao, Huijun Duan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/35343

Aims: To investigate sulphur (S) and chlorine (Cl) effects on fresh ear yield, yield components and quality in fresh corn.

Study Design: A 3 × 1 × 3 field experiment was set up in RCBD, with three replications. This was integrated with laboratory experiments.

Place and Duration of Study: San Fen Chang Experiment Station, and Crop Genetics and Breeding laboratory of Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, China, between March 2016 and May 2017.

Methodology: Treatments comprised Control (S0, Cl0), S (38 kg ha-1) and Cl (84 kg ha-1); and three hybrids included TDN21 (sweet), JKN2000 (waxy) and JKN928 (sweet and waxy). Total fresh ear yield was calculated from the measured components; quality evaluation focused on taste parameters (relative sweetness, aroma, texture, peel thickness and viscosity), grain nutritional composition (crude protein, starch, fat and lysine contents) and external appearance of ears; whilst Barium sulphur turbidity method was used to assess grain sulphur content.

Results: Significant (p≤0.05) total fresh ear yield ha-1 increases of 18.12%, 17.53% and 6.58% in TDN21, JKN2000 and JKN928 cultivars, respectively, were realized as S influenced some yield components (average fresh ear diameter, ear length and ear weight) evaluated. However, Cl effect was insignificant. Both S and Cl significantly (p≤0.05) improved the kernel taste by increasing relative sweetness and flavour in all cultivars. Additionally, sulphur significantly increased crude protein (CP) in TDN21, whilst chlorine decreased CP by 2.78% to 6.05% in all cultivars. Sulphur significantly increased crude starch by 4.31% and 7.56% in TDN21 and JKN2000, respectively, whereas Cl significantly increased crude fat by 3.43%, 15.17% and 6.60% in cultivars 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Furthermore, sulphur enhanced harvested ears` external appearance in TDN21 and JKN2000 cultivars, contributing to quality improvement.

Conclusion: Sulphur has profound effects on enhancing both yield and quality, whilst chlorine is prominent on quality in fresh corn.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Herbicides against Weeds in Transplanted Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Y. M. Ramesha, Manjunatha Bhanuvally, Ashok Kumar Gaddi, D. Krishamurthy, M. R. Umesh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33554

Aims: To assess the efficacy of different post emergent herbicides against weeds in transplanted rice.

Place and Duration: An experiment was conducted during Kharif 2015 and summer 2016 at Agricultural Research Station, Dhadesugur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka, India.

Methodology: The experiment comprised of eight treatments and replicated thrice. The complete block design was adopted. The weeds, which were dominant in trials field are Echinochloa sp. Panicum repens, Cynodon dactylon and Leptochloa chinensis among grasses, Eclipta alba and Ludwigia parviflora as broad leaf weeds and Cyperus sp. as sedge.

Results: All the weed management treatments gave significantly (p=0.05) higher grain yield of rice over weedy check. However, among weed management herbicidal treatments, post emergent application of BAS 9548 H (Penoxsulam 10 g/l + Bentazone 360 g/l SC) @ 3000 ml/ha recorded significantly (p=0.05) higher grain yield followed by the application of BAS 9548 (Penoxsulam 10 g/l + Bentazone 360 g/l SC) @ 2500 ml/ha and twice hand weeding at 15 and 30 days after sowing.However, maximum cost benefit ratio was observed in plots treated with BAS 9548 H (Penoxsulam 10 g/l + Bentazone 360 g/l SC) along with twice hand weeded check compared to other herbicide treatments and weedy check in transplanted rice.

Conclusion: Post emergent application (20-22 days after transplanting) of BAS 9548 H (Penoxsulam 10 g/l + Bentazone 360 g/l SC) @ 3000 ml/ha was controlled all types weeds in transplanted rice.