Open Access Short Research Article

Relative Susceptibility of Isabgol Varieties/ Genotypes to the Incidence of Aphids

S. R. Patel, D. M. Korat

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/35407

Among the varieties/ genotypes of isabgol evaluated for their relative susceptibility to aphid, A. gossypii, three genotypes Anand early- 10, Kutch local and Niharika showed less infestation as compared to the released cultivars. These genotypes may be used as a source of resistance in breeding programme for development of insect resistant varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Enzyme Activity as Influenced by Seasonal Rainfall and Crop Growth Stages under Long-Term Fertilization and Intensive Cropping with Hybrid Maize

Pragyan Paramita Paramita Rout, N. Chandrasekaran, Dhaneshwar Padhan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/34686

Soil biological health mediated by enzyme activity is an index for soil fertility and plays a significant role in sustainability of cropping system. A field experiment was conducted in 2013-14 under AICRP-LTFE to study the influence of seasonal rainfall and crop growth stages on soil enzyme activities under long-term fertilization. Ten treatments were imposed as follows: T1 - 50 % NPK, T2 - 100% NPK, T3 - 150% NPK, T4 - 100% NPK + hand weeding, T5 -100% NPK + ZnSO4, T6 -100% NP, T7 -100% N alone, T8 -100% NPK + FYM, T9 -100% NPK (-S) and T10 - Control. The occurrence of monsoon rainfall increased the soil urease and dehydrogenase enzyme activity whereas phosphatase activities recorded lower values. The results also indicated high influence of crop growth stages on enzyme activities which is well evidenced by high phosphatase activity, low urease and dehydrogenase activity at harvest stage of hybrid maize. Among treatments, T8 - 100% NPK + FYM at 10 t ha-1 recorded highest activities of these enzymes emphasising importance of integrated nutrient management in improving biochemical properties thereby sustaining soil health over long run.

Open Access Original Research Article

Black Rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris) Control in Field Grown Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Sugar Loaf) with Moringa oleifera Extracts

M. Goss, P. Mafongoya, A. Gubba, Tesfay Sam

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/29850

Aims: To evaluate if the antibacterial compounds present in Moringa were significant enough to effect suppressive effect on Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (black rot) in field grown cabbages (Brassica oleracea), in an open field experiment.

Study Design: The experimental design was a 3 x 3 factorial laid out in a split plot in two blocks with three replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiments were carried out for 6 months during the October 2015 to April 2016 season at Victory Farm in Beatrice, Zimbabwe

Methodology: Three aqueous Moringa extracts (leaf, bark, and seed) at 3 concentration levels of 60, 100 and 140% were sprayed as foliar applications weekly from 5 weeks after crop emergence in cabbages for the duration of the study. The antibacterial activity for each of the different Moringa plant extracts was evaluated by recording number of totally defoliated plants once every week.

Results: The results indicated high significance in antibacterial activity of all the three Moringa extracts as they were able to achieve control of Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris black rot disease at varying levels in the cabbage plants (P < 0.05). The highest inhibition of black rot disease progression was recorded during 8th week after crop emergence with the seed extract recording the least mean leaf defoliation of 2.965 followed by the bark extract (3.312) and lastly leaf extract (3.486). Moringa seed extract had the highest antibacterial activity against the black rot disease in cabbages in this study.

Conclusion: Bacterial black rot disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris in cabbage can be effectively managed by using either seed, bark, or leaf aqua-based Moringa extract sprays. The 100 and 140% concentration levels were most effective, compared to the 60% concentration level. Further studies need to be carried out to assess if the utilization of the Moringa seed extract as a seed dressing would not increase its antibacterial effects against the test pathogen since it is an important seed borne disease of brassicas and crucifers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Sulphur and Zinc Levels on Growth, Yield and Quality of Soybean (Glycine max L.)

Satybhan Singh, Virendra Singh, Sumit Layek

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/35590

Field experiments were conducted during kharif 2014 and 2015 to study the influences of sulphur and zinc levels on growth, yield and quality of soybean. The experiment comprised five sulphur levels viz. (S0- control, S1- 10 kg S ha-1, S2- 20 kg S ha-1, S3- 30 kg S ha-1 and S4 40 kg S ha-1;) four zinc levels viz. (Zn0- control, Zn1- 10 kg Zn ha-1, Zn2- 20 kg Zn ha-1 and Zn3- 30 kg Zn ha-1). Application of sulphur and zinc increased all the growth and yield attributes of soybean but significant increase up to 40 kg S ha-1 and 30 kg Zn ha-1 were observed in plant height, number of branches plant-1 at all stages, seed yield and protein content in seed of soybean. The zinc level also had significant influence on the number of pods plant-1, number of grains pod-1, pod length, pod weight plant-1, test weight, grain weight plant-1. Highest level (Zn3) i.e. 30 kg Zn ha-1 was found at par with (Zn2) i.e. 20 kg Zn ha-1 during the investigation. Application up to 40 kg S ha-1 and 30 kg Zn ha-1 increased the uptake of sulphur and zinc significantly than control. Therefore, it can be concluded that application of 40 kg S ha-1 and 30 kg Zn ha-1 should be applied for better growth, yield and quality of soybean. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Responses of Nodulation and Grain Yield to Fertilization with Phosphorus (P) of Outstanding Low P Tolerant Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes in Highly Acidic and Phosphorus Deficient Soils Such of Rwanda

J. Gatesi, O. Nsanzimana

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33390

Promoting the use of low phosphorus (P) and acidity tolerant bean genotypes in highly acidic and low P soils is a long term cost-effective strategy to increase bean production in sub-Saharan countries. Moreover, the performance of beans under the widespread soil related stresses like acidic and P deficient is not well documented. Thus, pot experiments were established in greenhouses in Rubona, Rwanda.  Each pot was filled with 5 kg of highly acidic and P deficient soil collected from Nyamagabe district. The objective of the experiment was to identify superior grain yielding and nodulating bean genotypes suitable for such acidic and P deficient soils and their response to P inputs.  Four low P tolerant genotypes used (G 2858, RWR 1873, RWV 1668; and RWV 1348) and 59/1-2 (local check) were subjected to three levels of P (0, 5, 10 mg kg-1) and treatments were laid in completely randomized design with 6 replications. The climbing genotype RWV 1348 had the highest grain yield (22.9 g pot-1), followed by two bush genotypes RWR 1873 and RWV 1668 with the same grain yield of 14.7 g pot-1, while the local check (climbing) and GR 2548 (climbing) had low grain yield. Nodulation efficiency was 73, 54, 50% for RWR 1873, RWV 1348 and RWV 1668 respectively. Again, the local check and GR2548 had low effective nodulation (19 and 31% respectively). The input of P at 5 mg kg-1 soil increased grain yield of RWV 1348, RWR 1873 and RWV 1668 at 17, 21, and 33% respectively. On the other hand, doubling this rate has declined the yield of all genotypes. Genotype RWV 1348, a climber, is the best outstanding low P tolerant bean genotype under the highly acidic and low P deficient soils such of Rwanda and have a slight grain yield response when P fertilizer is applied. The two-bush bean genotype RWV 1873 and RWV 1688 are also outstanding low P tolerant bean genotypes compared to a climbing local check (59/1-2) and other low P tolerant climber (G2858). The genotypes RWV 1873 and RWV 1688 grain yield response to P fertilizer application has the same pattern as of RWV 1348. They are all outstanding low P tolerant genotypes and their nodulation efficiency is not responsive at P fertilizer application.