Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Fruit Bagging on Chemical Quality of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Varieties

Rakesh Kumar Singh, N. I. Shah, P. D. Solanki

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33987

An experiment was conducted to study the Influence of fruit bagging on quality of mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) in different varieties viz., Kesar, Alphonso, Langra, Vanraj. The treatments comprised with five different colures of bags (brown, old newspaper, yellow, and white) with control. Organoleptic evaluation (colour (7.33) and taste (7.47)) and carotenoides content (4.07 µg/g of tissue) recorded significantly maximum in brown paper bags (T1). Significantly maximum carotenoids content (5.60 µg/g of tissue) recorded in interaction between brown paper bagged Kesar fruits (V1T1) and higher content of chlorophyll was in unbagged Vanraj fruits (V4T5). It is concluded from the present study that the under South Gujarat condition, Fruits were bagging with brown paper bag, gave better results in all of the parameters. Kesar and Alphonso variety showed better results in respect of the parameters. Kesar variety (V1) recorded maximum organoleptic evaluation colour (7.42), texture (7.63), taste (7.55), flavor (7.50)], TSS (20.58 0B) and carotenoids contents (3.90 µg/g of tissue), whereas, Alphonso variety (V2) recorded highest quantity of total sugar (14.15%), reducing sugar (4.04%), non-reducing sugar (10.11%) and ascorbic acid (22.23 mg/100 g pulp). The minimum titrable acidity (0.16%) was obtained with both Langra and Vanraj varieties. Vanraj variety (V4) received maximum chlorophyll content (4.48 µg/g tissue).

Open Access Original Research Article

Nematicidal Efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica, A. Juss) Seed Extract against Meloidogyne incognita

Kiran Singh, Sumayya Hali

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/34574

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nematicidal efficacy of aqueous extract of seeds of Azadirachta indica on Meloidogyne incognita, the most common and harmful gall causing nematodes in this region, with the broader objective of controlling various kind of root knot nematodes using neem and a step towards being organic and saving environment.

Experimental Design: Random sampling.

Duration of Study: One cropping season.

The root-knot nematodes cause damage and loss of quality of products. The control of root knot nematodes require the use of nematicides, which are harmful to humans, it's environment and useful soil bacteria which contribute in nitrogen fixation. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the nematicidal potential of aqueous extract of neem seeds against root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Ten to forty percent of neem seed extracts (aqueous) were prepared and applied to the potted plants and the result was monitored for two weeks. The result obtained from experiments showed that the plant treated with 10% aqueous extract of neem had the lowest mortality among Meloidogyne incognita (8.33%) and had the lowest weight gain (9.82 gm) as well as the highest number of galls (2.5%), while treatment with 40% aqueous extract of neem seeds showed the mortality of 67.5% and weight gain of 11.33 gm as well as less number of galls (0.8%) after two weeks of treatment. Thus based on these findings it can be concluded that neem seed extract has potentials to control root knot nematodes and local formers can use it in order to avoid bioaccumulation of synthetic nematicides. Use of neem based nematicides will keep the tomato cheap, safe and environmental friendly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Controlled Drainage for Alleviating Soil Problem

A. Selvaperumal, I. Muthuchamy, S. Vallalkannan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/35758

Water logging induced salinity is a common problem in many command areas of irrigation projects. Controlled drainage is the next level of logical step towards improving water management in irrigated agriculture and reducing the environmental impact on subsurface drainage flow. The experiment was carried out during 2015 under irrigated condition, to study the effect of controlled drainage for alleviating water logging and soil salinity. The design of experiment was spilt plot design. The main plot treatments were taken at 4 levels of spacing (S1=7.5 m, S2 = 10 m, S3 =12.5 m, S4 =15 m) and subplot treatments were taken at 2 levels of drain depth and drain diameter (D1 = 75 cm, D2 = 60 cm; d1 = 75 mm, d2 = 63 mm). The result showed that the treatments of 75 cm (D1) of drain depth areas showing more depth to water table in all days of observations. The drain discharge rates were high in 7.5 m (S1) spacing when compared to all other spacing due to the influence of more area of contributing drain pipes (0.44 cm/day). The average paddy yield in the system installed field was 3.58 t/ha and the control plot was 2.2 t/ha. The results showed that the treatments of 7.5 m drain spacing at 75 cm depth with 75 mm diameter (S1D1d1) recorded high value in drainage coefficient and depth to water table. From the economic viability, it was observed that the 15 m drain spacing at 75 cm drain depth with 75 mm diameter (S4D1d1) were economically viable with the highest profit than the other treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in Labile Pools of Soil Organic Carbon in Relation with Crop Productivity in Different Long-term Fertilizer Treatments

A. Krishna Chaitanya, M. Suresh, Shyam Prasad Majumder, Ch. Sreenivas

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/35554

Studying the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) is important for understanding the carbon stabilization into different pools. Thus, a 25-year old experiment was used to assess the impact of double rice cropping system with addition of organics and grades of fertilization on labile carbon pools and crop yield sustainability in an Inceptisol in southern India. There was significant decrease (p<0.05) in bulk density with increase in the use of organics over control. Green manure applied (in combination with NPK or NPK+farmyard manure) showed greater mineralisable carbon hence, could say greater microbial activity and carbon turnover. The lowest value of microbial quotient (MQ) in the control indicated a poor quality soil with impairment of its capacity for C cycling. The better nutritional environment to microbial population in the soils under balanced fertilization along with organics increased the quotient. The higher respiration quotient (qCO2) in the control treatment suggested a less efficient use of available carbon by the microbes there.

Open Access Original Research Article

Restorative Potential of Residual Soil Amendments and One-Year Fallow on Top Soil Chemical Properties of a Tropical Ultisol

R. A. Ezema, C. L. A. Asadu, P. I. Ezeaku, A. O. Onunwa, P. K. Kefas

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/35763

Quantitative information on the contribution of residuals of soil nutrient management on natural nutrient recovery capacity of soil through fallowing is scanty. To evaluate the contributions, soil samples were collected from soils amended with 50 tha-1 boiler ash (BA),10 tha-1  poultry droppings (PM10), 150 and 300 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer, combinations of BA and PM or NPK and a control. The samples were collected at the end of first and second year of maize cultivation and after one year of fallowing to assess changes in pH, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, % organic carbon, exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, Na, K), cation exchange capacity and % base saturation. The study showed that type and quantity of soil nutrient recovered through fallowing significantly (p=0.01) differed in respect to the type of amendment previously applied. High pH level (7.0) and increase in Ca obtained in plots treated with BA50 either sole or combined was sustained up to the end of the fallow year. . Recovery of organic carbon and available P was more in plots with residuals of BA50 + PM10 while, nitrogen (0.26%) and exchangeable K (0.26 cmolc Kg-1) were obtained in BA50 +NPK150. The highest CEC and % BS values (23.85 cmolc Kg-1 and 76.7%), respectively were obtained from the control plots. Significant fallow effect on soil pH occurred only in NPK treated plots as % OC depleted in NPK300 and BA50 +PM10. Compared to the second cropping season, one year of fallow on the average resulted in an increase in the top soil pH, % OC, N, Ca, K and %BS; but reduced available P, Mg, Na and CEC. A combination of BA and PM or NPK had synergistic effects that exceeded the effect of applying them alone.