Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Effects of Rates of Poultry Droppings on Growth and Yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

A. G. Iyagba, C. B. Isirima

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/34553

The study on the effect of rates of poultry dropping on the growth and yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku, Rivers State, Nigeria. The school is located at latitude 5°2’N and longitude 6°40’E with elevation of 200 m above sea level. The area is characterized with rainfall range of 2000 m to 3500 m with high relative humidity and maximum annual temperature varying between 27.3°c and 35°c. Experimental design used in this study is the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The treatment, Poultry dropping was applied at the rates of 0t, 5t, 10t, and 15t per hectare and replicated three (3) times. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine degree of variability at 5% probability level. Result obtained from data analysis shows that Cucumber growth, yields and yield components were enhanced with the incorporation of Poultry droppings across various treatment rates. This is evident in the significant difference in germination %, growth and yield and yield components recorded during the assessment period at 5% level of probability (P≤0.05). Further work is necessary to determine the optimum level of applying the manure for cucumber production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Caryedon serratus (Oliver) (Bruchidae: Coleoptera) towards Various Botanicals and Hosts

N. B. Sagarka, M. F. Acharya, S. R. Patel, Dulera Jyoti

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32512

Studies on repellence effect of few botanicals on Caryedon serratus (Olivier) in stored groundnut were carried out at Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the year 2013-2014. The results revealed that out of seven treatments viz. chilli powder, garlic powder, dhatura powder, custard apple leaf powder, ginger powder, black pepper powder and mint leaf powder @ 5 g/ 50 seeds the treatment of black pepper powder (90.35, 88.95, 87.09, 86.75 and 85.46 per cent  repellence at 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 24 h, respectively) was greater and at par with treatment custard apple leaf powder and garlic powder@ 5 g per 50 g seeds of groundnut compared to datura leaf powder and mint leaf powder. Groundnut seed treated with Tamarindus indica (Ambali), Arachis hypogaea (Groundnut), Acacia nilotica (Babul) and Cassia fistula (Garmalo) were found to be preferred for oviposition by Caryedon serratus as compared to Prosopis juliflora (Gandobaval).

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Response Relationship of Maize under Different Nutrients Substrates on Volcanic Soils in the Western Flank of Mt. Cameroon

Godswill Azinwie Asongwe, Fru Delvis Ngang, Che Samuel Shu, Anold Tatah Kong, Shu Divine Mamboneh, Mbomi Saillieh Elizabeth

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/35573

The substitution of costly inorganic fertilizers with readily available organic inputs will be of great relief to subsistent farmers. The study evaluated the response of maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrid (F1) to varied fertilizer materials notably Tithonia diversifolia fresh residues, poultry manure and NPK in the Western slope of Mount Cameroon. A 4x3 randomized complete block design experiment sown with maize was laid. Soil samples were obtained from three locations on each of the plots, bulked and analyzed for their physico-chemical properties using standard methods. The maize was evaluated weekly for plant height, number of leaves, collar diameter, number of cobs, number of lines per cob and dry yield and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The soils of the area were found to be slightly acidic (pH = 6.1).  The average nitrogen content was very low (0.18%), while concentrations were low for calcium (3.70 cmol(+)/kg) and medium for magnesium (1.12 cmol(+)/kg). Plant height stood in the order of poultry (7.9cm) > Tithonia diversifolia (6.1cm) > Control (5.54cm) > NPK (5.39cm).  However, from the 9th to 10th week, significant increases in plant height were noticed in the treatment with Tithonia spp. The number of cobs per plant were not significantly different (p>0.05) across the three treatments. The cob circumference and grain yields were significantly higher (p<0.5) for poultry manure. While poultry manure performed better than most of the treatment, fresh Tithonia residues have promising properties as slow-release nutrient materials for small-scale farmers with limited financial resources in the region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Orientation of Caryedon serratus (Oliver) towards Various Colour Lights and Scents

N. B. Sagarka, M. F. Acharya, S. R. Patel

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/35406

Orientation of Caryedon serratus (Oliver) towards various colour lights and scents was evaluated at Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh in which it was found that the chronological order of orientation of C. serratus adults to various colour lights was dark > blue > indigo> white > green > yellow > red and that for various scents/perfumes was jasmine >borsali>nargis> rose > sandal wood> marigold >kevdo.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Characterization of Cameroon Cowpea Genotypes for Nitrogen Fixation Related Traits in Low Phosphorus Soils

Maureen Fonji Atemkeng, Tietchou Cyrille Yousseu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/35813

Aims: The objective of this study was to characterize cowpea genotypes based on grain yields and nitrogen fixing potentials.

Study Design: The experimental design was a two-factor factorial experiment in a randomized complete block with two replications.    

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the International Institutue of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Cameroon between June and December 2013.

Methodology: Fifty genotypes of cowpea were collected in 2012 from various sources. The exotic genotypes came from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Senegalese Agricultural Research Institute (ISRA), University of California, Riverside (UCR); and one genotype evaluated previously at the study site (Danilla). The experiment was carried out in pots in the screen house at Nkolbisson IITA, Cameroon. Soil samples were analyzed for pH, organic C, N, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and extractable P .Data was collected for 20 morphological traits related to grain yields, nitrogen fixation and plant growth. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on all the traits using the GLM of SAS version 9.2. Cluster analysis was done and dendrogram constructed based on the hierarchical method using Euclidean test in SAS version 9.2.

Results: The combined analysis of variance across environments (P-fertilization levels) showed significant   effects for most of the traits. In this study, the interaction between genotype and P-fertilization was significant (p< 0.05) for Nsize and very significant (P< 0.01) for LCS, SFW, SDW, RDW, shootp, NN, NFN, FN, NDW, NI, delta N of the legume (δ15N leg), %Ndfa, Shoot N, N-fixed and YLDplt. The genotypes were significantly different for all the traits studied at P< 0.01.Under low P at a dissimilarity coefficient of 1.8, the phenogram distributed the 50 accessions into two major clusters (I, II).  Cluster II has only one accession (Kodek. When P fertilizer was applied, the number of clusters and structure of phenogram II did not change but the accessions were regrouped compared to grouping under low P. Here at a dissimilarity level of 1.8, the phenogram also divided the 50 accessions into two major clusters (I, II). Under high P and high N environments, the maximum dissimilarity level between the accessions was 1.6 so grouping was done only at a dissimilarity level of 0.6. The addition of N fertilizers to the high P pots completely changed the phenogram distributing the accessions into 5 clusters.

Conclusion: Cluster analysis substantiated the existence of diversity among the 50 accessions for the morphological traits studied. The clustering pattern showed that the Cameroon landraces were not distant from each other like the exotic accessions. Furthermore, dissimilarities were observed among accessions from the three geographical regions, presenting a great possibility for the development of suitable varieties for the various agro-ecological zones of Cameroon.