Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Different Leaching Treatments in Gated Pipe Irrigation System

Neveen B adawy Abdel-Mageed, Alaa Nabil El-Hazek

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27204

The objective of this paper is to study the assessments of four leaching treatments on some soil chemical properties, irrigation efficiency and crop production. Field experiments are conducted in a study area that has gated pipes irrigation system, sandy silt loam to clay loam texture and the main crop is cotton. The study area is located at western Delta, Egypt and it covers 2.8 ha with Mediterranean semi-arid climate. Four leaching treatments are applied to the study area. They are 50%, 75%, 100% and 150% of the original leaching requirement (L.R). Total soil salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, toxic and non-toxic salts are investigated before planting, mid-season and at the end of the season for each leaching treatment. Also, additional water efficiency, irrigation efficiency, and crop production are studied for each leaching treatment. The study reveals that the 150% L.R treatment is associated with minimum increase of the total soil salinity. Sodium adsorption ratio decreased for all L.R treatments throughout the growing season. All L.R treatments increased the toxic salts, especially 150% L.R treatment. The 50% and 75% L.R treatments increased the non-toxic salts, while the 100% and 150% L.R treatments decreased them. The highest values of both additional water efficiency and the total irrigation efficiency are associated with 50% L.R treatment. The maximum cotton production is associated with 100% L.R treatment, followed by both 50% and 75% L.R treatments. Six equations are obtained employing regression analyses to get the percentage of the increase of total salinity, the percentage of the decrease of Sodium adsorption ratio, the percentage ratio of the change of both toxic and non-toxic salts, and both the additional water efficiency and the total irrigation efficiency with respect to the leaching treatment. It is concluded that both 50% and 75% L.R treatments produced lower values of soil salinity at the end of the growing season, and simultaneously achieved increased crop productivity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cowdung, NPK and Rhizobium Inocula on Growth and Soil Status of Summer Mungbean (Vigna radiata) in Acid Soil

K. Yasmi, M. A. Aziz, M. A. Kashem

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27499

This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of cowdung, NPK and Rhizobium inocula on growth and soil status of summer mungbean (Vigna radiata) on acid soil of Khadim Nagar, Sylhet, Bangladesh. Seven treatments; Control (without Rhizobium inocula and fertilizers), Cowdung (CD), CD+RI, NPK, NPK+RI, ½(NPK)+RI and Rhizobium inocula (RI) were built into a randomized complete block design with three replications. The rate of Urea-N, TSP-P and MoP-K were 14, 14 and 17.5 kg ha-1, respectively. Cowdung was 8 tons hectare and RI used @ 45 g kg-1 seed. The randomly selected 5 plants were uprooted at 30, 45, 60 and 90 days after sowing for growth characters analyses. The initial and post-harvest soils were collected and analyzed for pH, organic matter, total N, exchangeable K, available P, available S and available B. Cowdung, NPK and Rhizobium inocula had significant effects on growth characters of Mungbean. Sole application of cowdung @ 8 tons hectare produced longer root with taller plants, higher number of branches plant-1 along with longer and wider trifoliate leaves which highly influenced the biomass of Mungbean. NPK fertilizers and Rhizobium application alone or in combined form did not significantly affect the plant growth over sole application of cowdung. The heavy rainfall also limits the NPK and Rhizobiumactivity that affects the plant growth. The post-harvest soils status was not significantly influenced due to treatments application. It may be concluded that cowdung nutrients supply were more efficient than that of NPK and Rhizobium fertilizers in acid soils.


Open Access Original Research Article

Quantification of Photosynthetic Pigments of Plants, Water and Sediment Samples in Chirackal and Kattiparambu of Ernakulam District, Kerala

S. Sofia, M. V. Merlee Teresa

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27857

Aims: The present study intended to investigate the pigment composition of four selected mangrove plants viz., Avicennia officinalis, Excoecaria agallocha, Rhizophora mucranata and Sonnaratia alba and water and sediment samples. And to quantify the concentration of various pigments found in the above samples.

Place and Duration of Study: The samples were collected from the mangrove creeks of Chirackal and Kattiparambu of Ernakulam district, Kerala. Duration of the study was from 2013 December to 2015 December.

Methodology: The estimation of the total pigments, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid concentration of the biotic samples, water and sediments were done using standard methods in Spectrophotometer.

Results: Plants showed high pigment concentration compared to water and sediments.  High chlorophyll ‘a’ (2 mg/g), chlorophyll ‘b’ (0.8 mg/g) and total chlorophyll (2.74 mg/g) were observed  in Excoecaria agallocha of Kattiparambu and  carotenoids (0.72 mg/g)  observed  in Rhizophora mucranata, Chirackal. In sediment samples, high chlorophyll ‘a’ (0.85 mg/g), total chlorophylls   (1.31 mg/g) and carotenoids (0.725 mg/g) were observed in Chirackal area and chlorophyll ‘b’ (0.595 mg/g) obtained in Kattiparambu. Chlorophyll ‘b’ (0.6 mg/g) and carotenoids (0.86 mg/g) were reported high in the water samples of Kattiparambu region and chlorophyll ‘a’ (0.61 mg/g) and total chlorophylls (0.86 mg/g) in Chirackal. In Pearson’s correlation coefficient studies, the content of KEA-chlorophyll was found to have a strong positive correlation among other mangrove species and some sediment samples.

Conclusion: Seasonal changes and local geological conditions are the major factors for variations in pigment concentrations in plants, water and sediment samples. Sediment pigments proved to be good indicators of lake-ecosystem response to climate change and long-term variability in the photo trophic community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield Performance to Plant Density of Celosia argentea in Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria

C. V. Ilodibia, M. U. Chukwuma, N. F. Okeke, R. N. Adimonyemma, N. A. Igboabuchi, E. E. Akachukwu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27923

Celosia argentea is a tasteful vegetable with high nutritional and medicinal values. But the increasing rate of urbanization and population has resulted to low productivity coupled with high demand which outweighs supply. Adequate production is yet to be achieved due to decline in available land space for large scale production. Due to the importance of this vegetable to Nigerian diet, the utilization of the available land area wisely for sustainable production is adequate. The effects of different planting spaces (15 x 15 cm, 20 x 20 cm, 25 x 25 cm and 30 x 30 cm) on the growth and yield of Celosia argentea L were investigated in 2014 cropping seasons (rainy and dry seasons) at the Department of Agricultural Education Teaching and Research Farm, Nwafor Orizu College of Education Nsugbe, Anambra State. A randomized complete block design, replicated four times was used.  The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. Results showed that growth and yield parameters of Celosia argentea were influenced by plant density. The planting space of 15 x 15 cm had the highest plant height of 55.50 cm and 54.15 cm in both rainy and dry cropping seasons respectively. On yield per hectare, also, recorded the highest shoot yield of 13.05 kg/ha, 16.45 kg/ha, 17.22 kg/ha in rainy season and 8.85 kg/ha, 12.01 kg/ha and 14.03 kg/ha in dry season at harvesting intervals of 4, 7 and 10 weeks. This data showed that the planting space of 15 x 15 cm had a better performance when compared to others. It is therefore recommended for sustainable production of Celosia argentea in the study area.


Open Access Original Research Article

Mechanical Strengths, Hydraulic Conductance and Growth of Passiflora edulis f. edulis Grafted on Five Different Rootstocks at Three Different Cleft Lengths and Their Susceptibility to Wind Damage in Nakuru Kenya

R. M. Gesimba

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27131

This study was carried out to determine the relationship between graft union mechanical strengths, hydraulic conductance and plant growth of Passiflora edulis f. edulis grafted on different rootstocks and cleft lengths and their susceptibility to wind damage in Nakuru Kenya. Vertical rupture, horizontal tensile strength, hydraulic conductance and growth of Passiflora edulis f edulis grafted on P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. ligularis, P. mollisima, P. subpeltata and P. caerulea rootstalks with 1, 1.5 and 2 cm cleft lengths were determined 13 weeks after grafting and compared with self-grafts. Vertical rupture force was highest in P. edulis f. flavicarpa self grafts in all the three cleft lengths. Grafts with 1 and 1.5 cm cleft lengths had no significant difference in horizontal tensile strength. Self grafts with 1.5 cm clefts had higher hydraulic conductance than cross grafts. Scion growth was significantly high when the union length was 1.5 and 2 cm in P. ligularis by P. edulis and P.  flavicarpa by P. edulis graft combinations. Vertical force generated by wire displacement showed that enough force was generated that could damage the vines The strength of wind needed to break the weakest was higher than the maximum recorded in Nakuru County implying that cross grafts of P. edulis f. flavicarpa by P. edulis f. edulis with 1.5 cm cleft lengths are not prone to wind breakages in Nakuru, Kenya. However, the growers need to graft their passion fruits with 2 cm cleft lengths since wire displacement develops enough vertical force that could damage the vines. Results indicated that the best rootstock for Passiflora edulis was Passiflora flavicarpa.


Open Access Original Research Article

Remediation of a Highly Calcareous Saline Sodic Soil Using Some Soil Amendments

O. Negim, A. Mustafa

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/27966

Amelioration of saline and sodic soil by organic and inorganic amendments can be improved the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. A laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to evaluate the effect of different amendments on some physical and chemical properties of a highly calcareous saline sodic soil (pH= 8.3, ECe= 55 dS/m, CaCO3= 26.12% and ESP=27.5%). The studied soil was treated with three amendments, viz pressmud, gypsum by-product and phosphoric acid. Pressmud (PM) was applied at rates of 0, 7.5 and 15% per kg soil whereas, gypsum by- product (G) was mixed with the upper 5 cm of the soil surface and applied to the soils at rates of 0, 2.5 and 5 g/kg. Phosphoric acid 50% (PA) was mixed with irrigation water at 0, 125 and 250 kg/fed application rates. Untreated soil was used as a control (CTRL). All treatments were replicated three times. After incubation period, leaching process was used for six months. At the ending of the experiment, the soil samples were taken from all soil columns and analyzed for some physical and chemical properties. The obtained results showed that, soil pH, ECe and ESP were decreased in all amendments either, single or in combination compared with CTRL. Soluble Na concentration was reduced, while soluble Ca and Mg were increased when addition of all amendments compared with CTRL. Moreover, data revealed that the bulk density and wilting point were decreased, while field capacity and available water were increased in all amendments compared to CTRL. Our study suggests that the combination of PM1+G1+PA1 effectively reclaimed a highly calcareous saline-sodic soil than all other treatments.