Open Access Short Research Article

Growth and Yield Performance of BRRI Dhan29 to Manures and Fertilizers under Both Conventional and SRI System

M. M. Hossain, S. Imran, L. Akter, N. Islam

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36029

A field experiment was carried in the Agronomy Field, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to study the effect of integration of fertilizer and manure on the yield performance of Boro rice (BRRI dhan29) under the system of rice intensification (SRI). The experiment included ten treatments of rice production method viz. conventional method (CM) with recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), conventional method with 15 ton/ha of cowdung, conventional method with 5ton/ha of cowdung + RDF, SRI with 15 ton/ha of cowdung, SRI with 10 ton/ha of cowdung, SRI with 10 ton/ha of cowdung + 50% RDF, SRI with 5ton/ha of cowdung + 100% RDF, SRI with 100% RDF, SRI with 150% RDF and SRI with 100% RDF + biofertilizer (200 g/plot). The results indicated that all crop characters except number of non-bearing tillers/hill, sterile spikelets/panicle and harvest index were significantly influenced due to integration of fertilizer and manure. The SRI method performed better than conventional method. Among the SRI, integration of fertilizer and manure and fertilizer more than 100% of the recommended and biofertilizer rate produced the highest grain yield. The results showed that the best option for the cultivation of BRRI dhan29 during the Boro season was SRI with 100% RDF and biofertilizer (200 g/plot). This integration not only reduced the production cost but also had a long term impact on improvement of soil properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Legume Integration and Phosphorus Use on Maize N and P Concentration and Grain Yield in Kabete - Kenya

N. A. Templer, J. J. Lelei, R. N. Onwonga

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/34972

Aims: Investigate effect of legume integration and phosphorus application on nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) concentration and yield of maize.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Kabete Field Station of the University of Nairobi during the long (LRS) and short rainy (SRS) seasons of 2012.

Methodology: A split plot layout in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), with three replicates was used. The main plots were sole maize, intercropping (chickpea/maize; lupin/maize) and rotation systems (chickpea-maize; lupin-maize) systems. The sub plots were Minjingu rock phosphate (MPR) and triple superphosphate (TSP) fertilizers, applied at 60 kg P ha-1. Maize P and N concentrations were measured at seedling, mid-flowering and physiological maturity/harvest. Maize grain and dry matter (DM) yield were determined at physiological maturity.

Results: During the LRS, significantly (P=0.05) higher maize P concentrations were recorded in chickpea/maize intercrop (C/M) with TSP at seedling; sole maize, chickpea/maize (C/M) and lupin/ maize (L/M) intercrops, with MPR and TSP at mid flowering and L/M intercrop with TSP at harvest. In the SRS at seedling and harvest stages, significantly higher values were recorded in the lupin-maize rotation (L-M) with MPR. At mid flowering, significantly higher P values were observed in L/M with MPR. During the LRS, N concentration in maize was significantly higher in L/M with TSP and L/M with MPR at seedling and mid flowering stages, respectively. At harvest L/M with TSP had significantly higher values. In the SRS, maize N concentration was significantly higher in L-M and chickpea-maize (C-M) rotation with MPR and sole maize with TSP at seedling; and L/M with MPR and TSP, at mid flowering and harvest, respectively. During the LRS, maize grain yields were significantly higher in L/M with TSP and MPR and C/M with MPR. In the SRS, significantly higher maize grain yields were recorded in L/M with TSP and L-M with MPR. DM yields in the LRS were significantly higher in L/M with TSP applied. In the SRS, DM yields were significantly higher in L/M with MPR, C/M with MPR, L-M with MPR and C-M with MPR.

Conclusion: The integration of MPR or TSP and legumes increased maize N and P concentration and yields. The use of cost effective MPR in an intercropping system may be preferred by small holder farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Molecular Identification of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Infected Peanut Seeds

Allegendran Rajeendran, Rosimah Nulit, Christina Yong Seok Yong Seok Yien, Mohd. Hafiz Ibrahim

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/35838

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea (L) cv. Margenta) seeds are currently, significantly considered as an important source of protein and vegetable oil. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a fungal disease from seed that reduces seedling emergence and seed germination. The pathogenic fungi that isolated from peanut were identified using ITS 1 and ITS 4 primer with polymerase chain reaction and NCBI database using BlastN algorithm. From NCBI using blastN analysed was 95% identify with other Colletotrichum species in NCBI database search. The pathogenicity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on peanut seeds and seedlings at 14 days after sowing result was inoculated with pathogenic fungi with 32.3% and control was 83%. Hence, this study was experimented with the object to reveal seed-borne infections on tropical peanut in Malaysia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Lime, Mineral P, Farmyard Manure and Compost on Selected Chemical Properties of Acid Soils in Lay Gayint District, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia

Endalkachew Fekadu, Kibebew Kibret, Asmare Melese, Bobe Bedadi, Birru Yitaferu, B. B. Mishra

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/35915

Aim: to evaluate the effects of sole and combined applications of lime, mineral P, Farmyard manure, and compost on selected chemical properties of acid soils of Lay Gayint District after 20, 40, and 60 days of incubation under greenhouse conditions.

Study Design: the treatment consisted of fifteen treatments (lime, mineral P, FYM, compost, and their combinations) arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) in three replications.

Place and Duration of the Study: the study was conducted in Amhara Agricultural Research Institute greenhouse in 2015 cropping season.

Methodology: Treatments (lime, mineral P, FYM, and compost) were applied in sole and combination to acid soils collected from cultivated lands. After application, the soils were incubated for 20, 40, and 60 days to evaluate the effects of the applied treatments on selected soil chemical properties.

Results: The treatment combinations raised the soil pH significantly (P < 0.001) at the 40 days of incubation. All the treatments showed increased P availability with increasing time of incubation. Maximum available P was observed at the 60 days of incubation due to application of  8 t FYM ha-1 + 30 kg P ha-1 + 5 t lime ha-1 followed by 8 t compost ha-1 + 30 kg P ha-1 + 5 t lime ha-1. Exchangeable acidity and Al3+ were reduced significantly (P < 0.001) at the 40 and 60 days of incubation with the application of 30 kg P ha-1 + 10 t lime ha-1 followed by 4 t FYM or compost ha-1 + 15 kg P ha-1 + 10 t lime ha-1. The highest exchangeable Ca2+ was obtained at 20 days of incubation with the application of 30 kg P ha-1 + 10 t lime ha-1 followed by 4 t ha-1FYM + 15 kg P ha-1 + 10 t lime ha-1. Sole addition of 10 t lime ha-1 increased effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) from 17.59 to 22.09 cmolc kg-1 at the 40 days of incubation. Likewise, combined applications of 30 kg P ha-1 + 10 t lime ha-1 followed by 4 t FYM ha-1 + 15 kg P ha-1 + 10 t lime ha-1 improved ECEC of the soil from 17.59 to  23.95 and 22.97 cmolc kg-1, respectively at the 40 days of incubation.

Conclusion: Integrated applications of organic and inorganic amendments were found to be more effective in reducing soil acidity and Al3+ concentration while increasing the fertility of the soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interactive Effects of Boron and Humic Acid on the Growth and Nutrient Status of Maize Plant (Zea mays L.)

Mehmet Rüştü Karaman, Metin Turan, Ayhan Horuz, M. Şefik Tüfenkçi, Aydin Adiloğlu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36430

Development of the methods decreasing boron (B) toxicity to agricultural crops is a high priority. The use of alternative organic material sources such as leonardite based humic substances  (H.A.) could be used to control B balance in  soils. For this aim, a pot experiment, based on a completely randomized design with three replications, was conducted using the soil of calcareous usthochrepts. In the research, maize variety of ADA-9510 (Zea mays L.), which was obtained from Central Anatolia Region, was used. In the experiment, leonardite based humic substance (12% humic acid) at the levels of 0, 60, 120 mg kg-1 were used as humic material source, which was developed by Turkish Coal Corporations Foundation. Boron fertilizer at the levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30 mg B kg-1 were used in the form of H3BO3. The plants were harvested after 56 days, and dry weights in top of maize plants were recorded. Macro and micro nutrient concentrations of the plants were also determined. Dry matter yields of maize plants were significanly affected by the applications of H.A. and B fertilizer, whereas dry matter yield was decreased by the application of higher B at the rate of 30 mg kg-1 without H.A application. Thus, results of this study clearly showed that there was a close sinergism between the H.A. and B applications with regard to B toxicity tolerance of maize plants. The maximum dry matter yields of 50.71 and 51.09 g pot-1 were obtained by the applications of 20 mg B kg-1together with H.A. applications at the rates of 60 and 120 mg  kg-1, respectively. Depending on H.A. applications, B contents of maize plants varied between 32.18 and 35.02 mg kg-1.