Open Access Short communication

A Phylogenetic Exercise for the Study of Plants-Herbivores Interactions: The Genus Piper as a Case Study

Juan Carlos López Acosta, Armando Aguirre Jaimes, Anel Edith García Ramírez

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/35891

Phylogenetics, a useful tool for evolutionary ecology used to interpret species properties and recently, biological interactions based on historical rigorous hypotheses. Some of the most important ecological and evolutionary components in the plant-herbivore interface are the plant's defense patterns. In this study, we developed an exercise where we might give inferences of the evolutionary histories of a plant and their phytophagous using as a model to several species of Piper genus. With bibliographic data, we tested the effect of a number of herbivores, disturbance, pubescent and soil type in 11 species of Piper and their historical relationships with anti-herbivore characteristics. The pubescent and disturbance were the most important characteristics. It could be assumed that pubescence is not associated with herbivory traits, but probably has an adaptative value. We conclude that the use of a historical approach to explaining ecological phenomena have several applications, especially in areas that are usually based on adaptive planning. For the explanation of phenomena, we show a simple and useful procedure to make evolutionary inferences in order to generate practical case studies to teach evolutionary ecology.

Open Access Short communication

Forms of Phosphorus in Some Acidic Entisols of Subtropical Eastern India

Deepranjan Sarkar, S. Rakesh, A. K. Sinha, P. Mukhopadhyay

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36408

Information about the phosphorus (P) forms in soils of Terai agro-ecological region of Cooch Behar (where P fertilizers have been applied for a long time), and their influence on the availability of P in soils is meagre. A study was undertaken to evaluate the status of different P forms in twenty five soils (0-0.15 m; acidic Entisols) collected from rice growing areas spread over the district of Cooch Behar, West Bengal, and their relationships with salient soil properties. Results reveal that total inorganic phosphorus (TIP) as the predominant form constituted 78.47% of the total phosphorus (TP) on average, and maintained equilibrium with TP and available phosphorus (AP) in these soils. Significant positive correlation of AP (Bray-1 extractable) with organic phosphorus (OP) and organic carbon (OC) content suggests reversible association between extractable P and organic matter, and further indicates non-stabilization of phosphorus-organic matter complexation in the soils (Entisols) studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Irrigation Management of Greenhouse Marigold Using Tensiometer: Effects on Yield and Water Use Efficiency

E. Sujitha, K. Shanmugasundaram

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36437

Greenhouse is an important structure to minimize biotic and abiotic stress on crops, which could be grown round the year, during off-season and also under extreme conditions and high rainfall areas. It provides a controlled environment inherently free from pests and disease problems that increases the production and productivity per unit area as compared to open field conditions. Irrigation is a crucial practice, but the farmer irrigates relying on their own experience. One of the possible approaches for proper irrigation scheduling is measuring the soil water potential, simple and easy to manage. A study was conducted to draw the characteristics curve and to examine the effect of irrigation schedule based on the use of characteristics curve on yield and water consumption of greenhouse marigold compared with open field grown on sandy loam soil. Drip irrigation was adopted, with tensiometer based irrigation scheduling. The experimental results showed that the marigold performed well under greenhouse with yield of 20.4 t ha-1and water use efficiency was 108.6 kg   ha-1mm-1 as compared to field experiment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Bulking Agent Levels (Rice Straw) on Compost Quality and Net Return

M. Nour El- Din, Alaa El-Dein Omara, M. H. Elbagory

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36518

Utilization of rice straw through composting are used primarily to increase nutrient availability to plants as well as increased soil microbial biomass and functional diversity. A study was conducted at Bacteriology Lab., Sakha Agricultural Research Station, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt to investigate the effect of adding carbonaceous material levels (rice straw bulking agent) on compost quality and net return (L.E ton-1). The results showed that piles temperature increased with time, then gradually decreased till constant at ambient air temperature (ripening feature). The different piles varied in maturity time. The pile number one (without rice straw) firstly matured after 30 days, followed by pile No. two (2 % rice straw), but pile No. five (8 % rice straw) lately matured. All piles showed good chemical and biological characteristics, However, piles No. one and five attained the best characteristics. Pile No. one gave N, P and K concentrations of 2.4, 0.83 and 2.75 % respectively. Pathogenic fecal indicators (Salmonella and Shigella) not found for different piles at all. All piles, also, did not show toxicity, whereas germination % of Eruca sativa seeds ranging from 81.6 to 92.1 %.

Economic evaluation of constructed piles exhibited that pile No. one, economically, was the best which gave maximum net profit (171.5 L.E. ton-1) followed by pile No. two (168.5 L.E ton-1) and then pile No. three (4 % rice straw),  that showed the lowest net return (164.5 L.E ton-1).

Application experiment was conducted for studying the influence of compost microbial enrichment, after maturation, with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Zea mays biological yield and chemical composition. Applying compost of pile No. four and No. five gave the highest biological yield (fresh and dry weight plant-1), and N, P and K content (g shoot-1). PGPR inoculated plants with enriched compost gave the higher growth yield and element concentrations, followed by PGPR inoculated compost (enriched) compared to not inoculated plants. Total chlorophyll and soil dehydrogenase enzyme exhibited highest values at compost addition for piles No. four and No. five either with PGPR inoculated compost or not.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variable Responses of Seedlings of Two Wheat Cultivars towards Exogenous Hydrogen Peroxide

Manpreet Kaur, Vikramjit Kaur Zhawar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36224

Aims: Recent reports have shown that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important signaling molecule and that interacts with abscisic acid (ABA) signalling for some of its physiological effects.

Study Design:  This work was conducted to study H2O2 regulation of seed germination, growth and antioxidant potential in two wheat cultivars varying in drought tolerance and ABA-sensitivity. Sodium tungstate as ABA biosynthetic inhibitor was used to evaluate the effects of H2O2 mediated through ABA biosynthesis.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, 141004 India, between June 2012 and September 2012.

Methodology: Two wheat cultivars C306 (ABA higher sensitive and drought tolerant) and PBW343 (ABA lesser sensitive and drought susceptible) were used. 50 mM H2O2 with and without sodium tungstate (an inhibitor for ABA biosynthesis) was supplied exogenously for 24-48 h to 4-day old seedlings. Data was taken at 24 and 48 h after treatment.

Results: Exogenous H2Odelayed germination in both cultivars. It increased shoot and root biomass in C306 but not in PBW343. It increased antioxidant potential in terms of increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and proline contents in both cultivars but such increases were significantly higher in C306. It also led to production of some level of oxidative stress in terms of increased contents of H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA), and decreased levels of ascorbate contents and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate ratio in both cultivars but level of such oxidative stress was higher in PBW343. These H2O2-regulated effects were affected by inhibiting ABA biosynthesis in both cultivars; however, the effects were higher in C306 as compared to PBW343.

Conclusion: H2O2-regulations were higher in wheat cultivar C 306 than PBW 343. Such regulations were partly mediated through ABA biosynthesis.