Open Access Original Research Article

Yield, Water Use Efficiency and Economics of Pulses as Influenced by Irrigation Levels

K. H. Shirgapure, P. S. Fathima

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36452

A field experiment was conducted on a sandy loam soil at college of Agriculture V. C. Farm Mandya, UAS Bengaluru in kharif 2016 to study the effect of irrigation levels on productivity of pulses in southern dry zone of Karnataka for achieving optimum irrigation schedule, higher yield and water use efficiency. The experiment was laid out in Split-plot Design with four levels of irrigation as main plot viz., irrigation at 60, 80, 100 per cent CPE (cumulative pan evaporation) and irrigation as per recommended irrigation practices in Southern Dry Zone of Karnataka. The pulses grown in Sub-plots were Greengram, Blackgram and Fieldbean. Analysis was done for crop equivalent yield. The results revealed that, significantly higher greengram equivalent yield was with irrigation at 80% CPE (1710 kg ha-1) as compared to irrigation at 60% CPE and recommended practice (1427 and 1502 kg ha-1, respectively) but was on par with irrigation at 100% CPE (1619 kg ha-1). The water use efficiency was significantly higher with irrigation at 80% CPE (44.01 kg ha-cm-1) as compared to rest of the irrigation levels (28.78, 39.14 to 39.15 kg ha-cm-1). The treatment combination of irrigation at 80 per cent CPE and blackgram recorded significantly higher greengram equivalent yield of 2201 kg ha-1 and water use efficiency (61.80 kg ha-cm-1) as compared to rest of the combinations. The highest B: C ratio was recorded in irrigation at 80% CPE (3.63) while the lowest with recommended practices (2.96). Hence scheduling irrigation at 80 per cent CPE in pulses enhances yield, water use efficiency and profit in Southern Dry Zone of Karnataka.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Bagging Time on Fruit Yield and Quality of Red Pitaya (Hylocereus spp.) Fruit in Vietnam

Nguyen Minh Tuan, Nguyen The Hung, Bui Lan Anh, Nguyen Quoc Hung, Nguyen Viet Hung, Tran Trung Kien, Tran Thi Lien, Do The Viet

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36621

The study was performed to evaluate the effect of bagging time on fruit yield and quality of red pitaya H14 cultivar from May to August 2017 at Nguyen Binh District, Cao Bang Province, Vietnam. The experiment design was in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates, including control (without bagging), bagging fruit after 7 days anthesis, bagging fruit after 15 days anthesis by net screen-green bag (NS-GB) with bag size 320 x 260 mm. The physical, biochemical quality characteristics and damage of the fruits were recorded. The results showed that there was no significance in fruit number and fruit yield, fruit size among treatment by application bagging fruit. Moreover, bagging fruit after 7 days anthesis greatly improved flesh fruit weight, fruit edible rate percentage as well as total soluble solid than the control treatment. Furthermore, bagging fruit after 7 days anthesis markedly reduced 10-20% fruit crack, fruit sunburn, fruit fly and fruit blemished as compared to control treatment. In conclusion bagging fruit after 7 days anthesis had positive effect on enhancing fruit quality (total solube solid increase 15% as compared untreated control) and reduced fruit from insect pest and diseases for red pitaya cultivar under field condition in Cao Bang province, Vietnam.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Sulphur Nutrition and Mulching on Indian mustard (Brassica napes L.)

Subhas Jat, Triyugi Nath, Dileep Kumar, Sumedh Kashiwar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/37211

Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of sulphur nutrition and mulching on Indian mustard (Brassica napes L.) at Rajeev Gandhi South Campus (Banaras Hindu University), Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh during rainy season of 2013. Three levels of sulphur 20 kg ha-1 S (S1), 40 kg ha-1 S (S2), 60 kg ha-1 S (S3) and five levels of mulching, Zero mulch (M0), paddy straw @ 4 t ha-1 (M1), wheat straw @ 6 t ha-1 (M2), legume straw @ 5 t ha-1 (M3), and green weed mulch @ 12 t ha-1 (M4) were included in the experiments. Variety named ‘PT-303’ was selected for experimental study which was suitable for soils of Vindhyan region. Results showed that, plant height (98.9 cm),  plant dry weight (32.1 g), length of siliquae (6.20 cm), seed siliquae-1(16.5), test weight (3.07 gm) were recorded highest in S2×M1 treatment combination as well as changes in soil physical, and chemical properties. Significantly the highest results were recorded in S(S40 kg ha-1) along with M1 paddy straw @ 4 ha-1 (S2×M1) in growth as well as yield attributing characters of Indian Mustard. In terms of nutrient uptake highest nitrogen as well as sulphur uptake noticed in S2M1. Soil samples collected after harvesting of mustard crop showed the highest nitrogen 223.90 N kg ha‑1, phosphorus 26.90 kg ha-1, organic carbon 0.410% and water holding capacity 43.60% in S2M3 treatment combination. The combined application of 40 kg ha-1 with paddy straw was superior all over the treatments combinations.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Peptide Extract of Hydrolyzed Amaranth Globulin Induces Growth and Immunological Response in Tomato and Maize Plants

Mendoza -Figueroa José Silvestre, Rivera-López Francisco Javier, Luna- Romero Isaac Juan, Soriano -García Manuel

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/37089

Aims: Evaluate the effect in growth and defense activation of a peptide extract from hydrolyzed globulin of Amaranth in tomato and maize plants.

Study Design: Using different concentration of peptides we evaluated the physiological effect of peptide extract from amaranth in two different commercial crops.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biomacromolecules Chemistry at the Chemistry Institute UNAM, and Plant Pathology Lab, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, UNAM, duration 1 year.

Methodology: For evaluating the effect of peptide extract from globulin (GPE), tomato seeds were geminated in different concentration of GPE (10, 1 and 0.1 mg/mL), 5 seed per treatment were used, the effect of germination was observed for the length of epicotyl and stem development. Activation of plant innate immune response was tested using tomato leaf disc system (5 discs per treatment), tomato disc were exposed to 3 concentration of GPE, boiled bacteria P. syrinage pv. tomato and plant defense activator BTH for 15 minutes and analyzed with histochemistry detection for ROS. ROS were also quantified in laves of tomato plants treated with GPE, boiled bacteria and BTH, ROS were detected with DMPO using electronic paramagnetic resonance. To evaluate the protective effect in other plants, leaf blight system withHelminthosporium sp. was used to know the effect of GPE against fungi infection.

Results: GPE showed an improvement of seedling development at the concentration of 1 mg/mL, while innate immune response was induced after 15 minutes with the concentration of 1 and 0.1 mg/mL of GPE. This result also matched with the observed protection assay in a model infection system of leaf blight, showing protection of several blight development at 0.1 mg/mL.

Conclusions: The peptides derived from hydrolyzed globulin of Amaranthus hypochondriacus induce promotion in growth and develop of tomato, also innate defense in tomato leaves and in maize against fungi infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combining Ability Analysis to Identify Potential Parents and Hybrids for Yield and Its Related Traits in Soybean

O. F. Adewusi, L. S. Fayeun

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/34174

A half diallel study was conducted using seven genotypes of soybean to identify superior parents suitable for developing high yielding new cultivars and hybrids in soybean. The mean squares due to GCA was significant for four characters out of five characters studied. The significance of GCA indicated that additive genes were important in controlling these characters. The parents TGx1989 – 21F exhibited maximum GCA for plant height, TGx1835 – 40E for number of branches and TGx1830–20E for number of pods, total pod weight and seed yield. The GCA effects indicated that parents TGx1835 – 40E, TGx1989 – 21F and TGx1830–20E were the best parents to be used in crossing programmes for the selection of desirable plants from segregating populations. The hybrids TGx1990 – 55F x TGx1990 – 37F expressed highest SCA effects for plant height and number of branches, TGx1990 – 37F x TGx1830–20E for number of pods and TGx1990 – 3F x TGx1990–57F for total pod weight and seed yield suggesting that these hybrids have the potential to be used for soybean hybrid development.