Open Access Short Research Article

Pollen Morphology as a Useful Taxonomic Tool in Delimiting the Species of Loranthaceae in Nigeria

J. A. Ibrahim, A. E. Ayodele

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/37478

Background and Objective: Pollen grains shape, size, aperture and wall ornamentation have been useful in taxonomic studies of plants especially in resolving relationship or determining variation in a taxa. The Loranthaceae (Mistletoes) are parasitic family with known taxonomic problem of poorly identified species in Nigeria. Pollen grains of fourteen species which spread across six genera of Nigerian Loranthaceae was studied with a view of generating characters that would further help in their identification.

Methods: Samples were subjected to standard acetolysis for palynological sample preparation and analysis.

Results: Pollen grains are mainly triangular or three-armed in nature with percentage of polar to equatorial axis ranging from 90.69% to 100%. All pollen grains were oblate-spheroidal except the pollen of Helixanthera mannii that was prolate-spheroidal and all the genera had tri-snycolporate pollen grains except pollen grains of Tapinanthus which were tri-colporate. The smallest grains are found in the genus Helixanthera while others range from medium to large in size with H. spathulata having the smallest size of 20.75 µm by 20.75 µm and the largest of 49.00 µm by 52.50 µm in Globimetula mannii.

Conclusion: The information obtained from this study do not only add to the already existing information on the family, but the diagnostic characters obtained can be used in conjunction with other characters like morphology and anatomical characters to delimit the species in the family.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fertility Evaluation of Selected Top Soils for Crop Production in Ondo State, Nigeria

E. A. Adesemuyi, M. O. Nwagbara

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/35687

The soil resource of a nation is finite and its natural quality cannot be exchanged. However, maintenance of the good quality soil resource at a high level to support agricultural production is a key to poverty eradication and environmental sustainability. The study assesses the fertility status of selected surface soils in Ondo State of Nigeria with a view to making recommendations for sustainable crop production. Examination of the attributes of soils of the area was carried out and their potentials assessed for crop production in twelve selected locations (Ose, Ago-Ajayi, Ikun 1, Ikun 2, Iwaro, Oka. Akungba, Oyinmo, Agbanimu, Aiyegunle, Araromi and Ago-Fulani. Composite soil samples were collected at the depth of 0 - 20 cm across the selected locations in the area and analysed. Results of the analyses showed that surface soil textures ranged between sandy loam and sandy clay loam. Soil reaction varied from slightly acidic to neutral (6.66 - 7.09). Percent organic carbon was low to moderate (0.43 – 1.61%). Total nitrogen was generally moderately low to medium while available phosphorus ranged from low to medium. Exchangeable bases were generally low except the potassium content that was high in soils of Ose and Oka. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) and percent base saturation were generally low across the locations. The results generally revealed low nutrient status of the soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Characterization of Advance Research Centre for Rain Fed Agriculture Farm of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology- Rakh-Dhinsar, Jammu- (J&K)

M. P. Sharma, A. K. Mondal, R. C. Bhoye, A. Samanta, A. P. Rai, V. M. Arya, K. R. Sharma

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36858

Soil characterization of Advance Research Centre for Rainfed Agricultural Farm, Rakh-Dhiansar, SKUAST-Jammu was undertaken to monitor the status of various soil physico-chemical and biological properties such as pH, organic carbon (OC), N, P2O5, K2O, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, bacterial and fungal counts. Eighty-eight soil locations were selected and finally twenty two composites soil samples from four different blocks of the farm covering 14 ha of area were studied. All the soil samples were analysed as per standard methods. The results indicated that soil pH of all the blocks was almost neutral in reaction ranging from 6.4-6.9 whereas content of organic carbon falls in low to high category which varied from 1.20 to 7.80 g.kg-1. The available nitrogen content falls in low to medium category, the value ranged from 31.4 to 162.9, kg.ha-1 in all the blocks, whereas available phosphorous content ranged from low to high category values being 9.4 to 33.0 kg.ha-1 and potassium content varied 67.76 to 198.44 kg.ha-1 and come in category of low to medium range. The DTPA extractable form of cationic micronutrients viz., Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe were also studied. Zinc was found insufficient range (0.72-1.24 mg g-1), whereas Cu, Mn and Fe were under low to sufficient category as per their contents varied from 0.09 to 0.51, 0.12 to 4.17 and 1.39 to 49.37, mg.kg-1 respectively. Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi counts attain the levels of medium range as their distribution varied from 21.75 to 53.34 and 3.20 to 4.25 (CFU)-1 soil respectively in all the blocks. Majority of the soil characteristics were higher in Block-D followed by Block-C, Block-A and Block-B.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Planting Method and Weeding on the Yield of Transplanted Aman Rice

Md. Shefat-Al-Maruf, Montasir Ahmed, Md. Monir Hossain, Md. Ehsanul Haq, Sujan Majumder Majumder, Md. Abdul Matin, Parimal Kanti Biswas

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36979

A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy field, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka. The experiment consisted of two factors; Factor A: Planting method viz. Rice transplanter (P1) and Conventional method (P2) and Factor B: Weeding viz. No Weeding (W0), Weeding at 20 DAT (W1), Weeding at 35 DAT (W2), Weeding at 50 DAT (W3), Two Weedings at 20 DAT & 35 DAT (W4), Two Weedings at 20 DAT & 50 DAT (W5), Two Weedings at 35 DAT & 50 DAT (W6) and Three Weedings at 20 DAT, 35 DAT & 50 DAT (W7). The maximum number of filled grains panicle-1 and a minimum number of unfilled grains panicle-1 (170.82 and 27.83 respectively) were obtained from conventional method while the minimum number of filled grains panicle-1 and a maximum number of unfilled grains panicle-1 from rice transplanter (158.31 and 41.61 respectively). Higher yield (5.38 t ha-1) was obtained from the conventional method and lower yield (4.93 t ha-1) from rice transplanter but they did not vary significantly. Higher biological yield (12.92 t ha-1) was obtained from the conventional method and the lower from rice transplanter (10.86 t ha-1). In case of weeding, the highest grain yield was obtained from Three Weedings at 20 DAT, 35 DAT & 50 DAT (W7) (5.48 t ha-1) and lowest from No Weeding (W0) (4.13 t ha-1). In case of interaction between planting method and weeding, the highest grain yield obtained from P2W(5.82 t ha-1) and the lowest from P1W0 (3.57 t ha-1). As the conventional transplanting incurs more labor, using rice transplanter and weeding either at 25 DAT or at 35 DAT might be suggested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wheat Yield as Influenced by Nitrogen Rates, Sources and Tillage Systems

M. J. Bahrani, M. Davoodi, S. A. Kazemeini

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/37457

Conservation tillage systems present a challenge for integrating an efficient fertilizer program in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. A 2-year (2011–2013) field experiment was conducted to evaluate wheat response to three tillage systems (conventional, reduced and no tillage) and four nitrogen (N) [(0, 60, 120, 180 kg ha-1), and two nitroxin rates (0, 180 kg ha-1)] at School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. The experiment was conducted as a split plots arranged in randomized completely blocks design with three replications.  Results showed that grain yield and most of the yield components were significantly influenced by tillage systems, N rates and sources. Nitroxin inoculation did not accomplish significant difference in grain yield, but it increased grain yield when it was applied with 180 kg urea ha-1 compared to no nitroxin treatment. The highest grain and biological yields were obtained when crop was sown under reduced tillage (RD) system combined with 180 kg ha-1 of nitroxin inoculation. Therefore, for sustained production of wheat in the region, integration of 180 kg ha-1 of nitroxin inoculation under RD system is recommended.