Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Light and Temperature through Poly Film Covers on Anthocyanin Content in Rose Cut Flowers

G. Oloo-Abucheli, J. N. Aguyoh, G. Liu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36238

Quality is the most important attribute in rose cut flowers for both export and domestic market. Quality in cut flowers may be defined by many attributes however, among the most important is colour. A group of pigments commonly known as anthocyanins determine colour in plants.  Anthocyanins play a significant role by ameliorate the effect of high irradiance in plants under stressful environment. They also play a key role in delaying senescence hence enhancing the cut flower vase life. Despite the advantages anthocyanins are affected by the preharvest conditions mainly light and temperature interfering with their stability. An experiment was set up to investigate the effect of light and temperature through selected coloured poly film covers on rose petal anthocyanin content. The greenhouse structure was covered by poly films of different colours that were compartmentalized i.e. UV-A clear, IR504 with yellow tint and UV-A 205/N with green tint replicated three times. Two rose cultivars Red calypso and Furiosa were established and maintained, upon maturity the flower heads were plucked and oven dried at 60°C to constant weight. 5 g of the crushed petals was used in anthocyanin extraction. The anthocyanins were extracted and quantified in comparison with commercial standards using HPLC machine. The data obtained from the chromatogram as peak areas was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SAS statistical package (SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC) at P = .05. Where there were treatment differences, mean separation was done using Tukey’s procedure. Poly films significantly affected the quantity and quality of anthocyanin accumulation in rose petals. Cyanidin 3-0-glucoside was the most prevalent anthocyanin across all poly film covers and it was noted to be high under the UV-A 205/N (110.95±8.26 µg _ 5 g–1 DW) and IR504 (109.69±8.26 µg _ 5 g–1 DW) compared to UV-A clear (84.56± 8.26 µg _ 5 g–1 DW). The quantity of anthocyanins was low under the UV-A clear poly film that was characterized by high light transmission and day temperature. Combination of high irradiance and temperature affect the quality and quantity of anthocyanin in rose cut flowers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Mulching, Cumulative Pan Evaporation Ratio and Nutrient Levels on Yield, Nutrient Content and Uptake of Linseed

Anoop Kumar Devedee, R. K. Singh, Hari Singh, Vikram Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/37404

A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural   Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi to find out the effect of mulch, cumulative pan evaporation ratio and nutrient levels on Linseed in alluvial soil of eastern Uttar Pradesh. The experiment was conducted during rabi season 2015-16. On the basis of one year experimentation data showed that mulch consistently recorded significantly higher number of capsules (55.98), number of seeds per capsule (8.15), seed yield (14.62 q/ha), straw (29.62 q/ha) and biological yield (44.23 q/ha). Mulch had also significant effect on N, P, K content and uptake by seed and straw of linseed. Result revealed that Irrigation at IW (Irrigation Water)/ CPE ratio of 100% CPE gave significantly higher number of capsules, number of seeds per capsule, test weight, seed yield, straw yield and biological yield. N, P and K content in seed (3.29, 0.78, 0.71%) and straw (0.73, 0.17, 0.84%) as well as uptake were also significantly higher as compared to IW/CPE of 75% and 50%. 100% Recommended dose of fertilizers had significantly higher number of capsules, number of seeds per capsule, test weight, seed yield, straw yield and biological yield. Application of fertilizer at100%RDF gave significantly higher N P and K content as well as uptake by seed and straw as compare to 75%RDF and no nutrient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Response of Four Leguminous Trees to Native Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi from Tropical Forest in Indonesia

Ahdiar Fikri Maulana, Maman Turjaman, Takumi Sato, Yasushi Hashimoto, Weiguo Cheng, Keitaro Tawaraya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/37433

Aims: To isolate and identify arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from forest soils in Indonesia and to clarify their influence on the growth of four leguminous tree species.

Study Design: Isolation of AMF from five forest soils in Indonesia and inoculation of five AMF to four leguminous trees under pot culture condition.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamagata University, between 2015 to 2016.

Methodology: Soils were collected from five forests in Indonesia. Paraserianthes falcatariaCalliandra calothyrsus, and Cassia siamea were grown on each soil for 90 days. Sixty-one spore morphotypes were collected from the soil and propagated using the respective tree species. Propagated spores were identified and used in the inoculation of P. falcatariaC. calothyrsus, C. siamea, and Sesbania grandiflora. Shoot fresh weight (SFW), root fresh weight, shoot P concentration, and AM colonization rate were measured 60 days after the inoculation. Mycorrhizal dependency (MD) was calculated on the basis of SFW.

Results: Five isolates were identified: Diversispora gibbosa (M10-2), Acaulospora sp. (M11-1), Glomeraceae sp. (M44-3), Ambispora appendicula (M60-3), and Glomus sp. (S6-4). Mycorrhizal colonization ranged from 0% to 99%. SFW and shoot P content of the four leguminous trees inoculated with S6-4 were higher than those of trees inoculated with other AMF. The four leguminous trees inoculated with S6-4 showed higher MD than the trees inoculated with other AMF. P. falcataria and C. calothyrsus showed high MD upon inoculation with AMF.

Conclusion: Colonization by native AMF differed by leguminous tree and growth response differed depending on the AMF isolate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Deficit Irrigation and Mulching on Seed Yield and Water Use of Onion (Allium cepa L.)

S. K. Biswas, D. K. Roy, K. K. Sarkar, A. J. Milla, K. F. I. Murad, M. A. Anower

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36575

The effects of deficit irrigation and mulch on seed yield, water use and water productivity of onion was studied through a field experiment during  2012 - 2013 and 2013 - 2014 winter season at the experimental field of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Eight treatments comprising of four levels of irrigation regimes (40, 60, 80, and 100% soil moisture deficit (SMD)) and two levels of mulching (no-mulch and rice straw) were tried in randomized complete block design with three replications. Both irrigation and mulch exerted significant effects on the yield and yield contributing parameters of onion.  On average, the seed yield ranged from 1061 to 1595 kg ha-1, with minimum in treatment of 40% DSM without mulch and maximum in full irrigated (100% DSM) mulch treatment, respectively. The seed yields of the treatments irrigated up to 80% DSM were not statistically (p= .05) different from those that were fully irrigated (100% DSM). Analyses of results showed that irrigating onion up to 40% DSM reduced seed yield by about 30%. Applying water up to 60% of DSM caused a yield reduction of about 19%. However, irrigating onion up to 80% of DSM reduced seed yield by less than 4%. Results also revealed that water use of onion crop were largely influenced by the depths of water applied rather than mulching. On average, total water use ranged from 177 to 262 mm with minimum in mulch treatment of 40% DSM and maximum in full irrigated treatment. Total water used by the mulch treatments was only 5.08% lower than that of the non-mulched treatments. While difference in total water applied between mulched and non-mulched treatments was 7.2%. Water productivity was found to be the highest (0.71 kg m-3) in the mulched treatment (80% DSM) with total water use of 220 mm. This treatment also produced near to the highest yield with 22% saving of irrigation water meaning that irrigating up to 80% DSM with mulch may be the best practice for seed production of onion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Chlorophyll Contents of Wild Type and a ‘Variant’ Telfairia occidentalis (Hooker Fil.) and Soil Properties of Their Locations on a Farm at Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

A. O. Egbe, E. E. O. Ndibukke, O. S. Bello, A. A. J. Mofunanya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36693

Aim: To measure the chlorophyll contents of wild type and ‘variant’ Telfairia occidentalis and determine the soil properties of their locations on a farm at Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Soil and leaves were randomly sampled at three locations; IKI, IKII and IKIII.

Methodology: Leaves were randomly sampled at three locations; IKI, IKII and IKIII for determination of chlorophyll a, b and a+b contents of the wild type and ‘variant’. Chlorophyll contents were determined spectrophotometrically. Soil samples were also collected at two depths 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm at the root base of the plants to make a composite from the three locations in four replicates each. The soil samples were air dried and passed through a 2 mm sieve before analysis for the various nutrients. Particle size was determined by hydrometer method. Organic C, P, soil pH, total N, exchangeable bases, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC), K, Na, Ca and Mg were determined.

Results: Results of t-test for paired comparison of leaf chlorophyll contents showed a highly significant (P<0.025) difference between the wild type and ‘variant’. Mean values for chlorophyll a for the wild type ranged from 66.08±1.16 to 79.35±1.02 mg/g FW for the three locations, while the ‘variant ‘ had a ranged in values from 19.28 ± 0.02 to 32.40 ± 1.45 mg/g FW. Chlorophyll b for wild type ranged from 73.46 ± 2.16 to 87.76 ±1.28 mg/g FW compared to mean values for ‘variant’ which ranged from 22.91 ± 0.18 to 42.03 ± 1.50 mg/g FW. Mean values for a+b for the wild type ranged from 140.26 ± 2.12 to 167.11±1.34 mg/g FW, while the ‘variant’ had a ranged in values from 42.25±0.35 to 74.43±1.44 mg/g FW. Results of soil analysis revealed low values for Ca, Mg, K and N of 1.2-4.0, 0.4-1.8, 0.08-0.11 cmol/kg and 0.08-0.15% respectively.

Conclusion: The low values of the major mineral nutrients; N, Ca, Mg and K suggest that the chlorosis of the leaves of the ‘variant’ T. occidentalis may be attributed to mineral nutrients deficiencies. However, viral infection can also cause chlorosis. Whether there was any underlying genetic causes could not be established.