Open Access Original Research Article

Land Use Management and Nutrient Status of Soils under Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Cultivation in Southwestern Nigeria

F. F. Akinola, O. O. Olubanjo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36871

Human-induced soil degradation is a common phenomenon in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries. The study was conducted to determine the effects of rainfall on physico-chemical characteristics of uncultivated bare soil and soils under tomato and oil palm plantation. The effects of the different land uses on soil physical properties such as bulk density (BD), total porosity (PT), soil water content (WC), and particle size distribution) and soil chemical properties namely: organic matter content (SOM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), phosphorus (P) and total nitrogen (TN) were determined. Sediment loss from bare soil plots resulted to loss of soil organic matter (SOM), soil organic carbon (SOC) and in extension loss of soil macro-nutrients such as total nitrogen (TN) and potassium (K). The sand, silt and clay fractions were significantly affected by land uses, soil depths and the interaction of land uses (p ≤ 0.001).  Land use management significantly (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.01 and p ≤ 0.05 respectively) affected the nutrients and fertility status of the land use types. The results of the sediment yield analysis have demonstrated that the three different treatments led to different amounts of soil nutrients loss accompanying the sediments. Soil management has a major impact on agricultural productivity and ecosystem sustainability as soils differ in their response to different management. The study emphasizes the management of soil nutrients through effective runoff and sediment yield analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Different Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Varieties in Black Soils of Vidharbha-Maharashtra

L. N. Dongarwar, Sumedh R. Kashiwar, S. M. Ghawade, Usha R. Dongarwar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/38400

The present study was carried out at ‘Chilli and Vegetable Research Unit’, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, Maharashtra, India during winter season of 2013-14 to investigate growth, yield and qualitative parameters of various radish varieties. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (R.B.D.) with seven treatments and three replications. Seven varieties of radish, used for the study as treatments were viz., V1- Pusa Desi, V2-PusaChetki, V3- Pusa Reshmi, V4- Pusa Himani,V5- Japanese White, V6- Arka Nishant and V7- IHR-1-1. The plant height was supreme (28.29 cm) in Arka Nishant, maximum chlorophyll content of leaves (3.10 mg g-1) recorded in Arka Nishant. The variety Arka Nishant required minimum (43 days) number of days, in weight of total fresh weight of plant (190.06 g to 226.60 g) were observed. It was maximum in variety Arka Nishant, whereas, minimum in variety Pusa Desi. The variations in fresh weight of root (122.76 g to 161.74 g) were observed. The maximum root to shoot ratio (1.37) was observed in variety Arka Nishant. The values of root diameter were maximum (3.69 cm) in variety Arka Nishant. The maximum root yield plot-1 (32.34 kg plot-1) and hectare-1 (53.91 t ha-1) was produced in variety Arka Nishant. The maximum moisture content of root (97.75%) was recorded in Arka Nishant variety. The ascorbic acid content was maximum (18.36 mg 100 g-1), TSS (4.00 0B) was recorded in the variety Arka Nishant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Use of Poultry Manure and NPK Fertilizer on Soil Properties and Cocoyam Production

B. E. Udom, N. E. S. Lale

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/37369

The increasing food security and industrial demand for cocoyam has compelled soil Scientist to evaluate the use of organic and inorganic fertilizers alone or in combination to enhance early establishment, canopy development and yield of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott.). In this study, integrated use of chemical fertilizer (N) with poultry manure (PM) as amendments at different rates on soil physical and chemical properties and cocoyam production in coastal plain soil was investigated. Treatments were: Control- (PM0N0), 5 t ha-1 PM (PM5N0), 10 t ha-1 PM (PM10N0), 200 kg NPK ha-1 (PM0N200), 100 kg NPK ha-1 (PM0N100), 2.5 t PM + 100 kg NPK ha-1 (PM2.5N100) and 5 t PM + 100 kg NPK ha-1 (PM5N100). Results revealed that physical and chemical properties of the soil and cocoyam yield were substantially (p < 0.05) improved by applications of 10 t ha-1 (PM10) poultry manure and a combinations of lower rates (PM5N100). Water holding capacity, total porosity and soil organic matter were substantially increased by 64%, 30% and 72% respectively by the applications of 10 t ha-1 PM, and PM5N100. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in PM5N100 (25.8 cm h-1) followed by PM10N0 treatments (24.11 cm hr-1). The PM5N100 treatment also gave the highest yield of cocoyam (4.8 kg m-2) with maximum leaf area index of 96%, sufficient to protect the soil surface from the impact of high tropical rains. In this study, integration of NPK (15:15:15) at 100 kg ha-1 with 5 t ha-1 poultry manure can be used to improve the soil structural indices and increase yield of cocoyam and allied crops on sustainable basis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Clodinafop-Propargyl and Mesosulfuron-Methyl Herbicides on Wild Oat (Avena ludoviciana) Control under Moisture Stress Condition

Mahdi Aghabeigi, Mohsen Khodadadi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/38451

In order to investigate the effects of drought stress on the effect of herbicides of Clodinafop-Propargyl (Topic) and Mesosulfuron-methyl (Chevalier) in greenhouse conditions, a split factorial experiment was conducted in 4 replications in a completely randomized design. The main plot consisted of three levels of irrigation (no stress, moderate stress and severe stress) and subplots in a factorial arrangement including 6 doses (0, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and 125% of the recommended dose) herbicides Clodinafop-Propargyl (Topic) and Mesosulfuron-methyl (chevalier) in pot. The results of analysis of variance showed that the type of herbicide had no significant difference in the amount of wild oat dry matter and in fact both herbicides had the same effect. However, drought stress had a significant effect on dry weight of oat (P = .05). The mean dry matter of wild oat in treatments without stress, moderate stress and severe stress was 0.50, 0.46 and 0.41 g/plant, respectively. The highest amount of wild oat dry weight was related to control without herbicide treatment or zero dose with mean of 0.96 g/plant, and the lowest was 125% with 0.07 grams per plant. Drought stress reduces the efficiency of herbicides and, by increasing the dose of herbicide from the recommended amount, this defect can be eliminated. In this experiment, with a 25% increase in dosage of herbicides, their efficacy was similar to that in the recommended dosage in non-stress conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Germination, Seedling Growth and Biochemical Responses of Amaranthus (Amaranthus tricolour L.) and Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) at Varying Chromium Concentrations

N. Gandhi, I. Prudhvi Raj, M. Maheshwar, D. Sirisha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/38228

The main objective of present investigation was to evaluate the impact of different concentrations of hexavalent chromium on germination and seedling growth responses of Amaranthus (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Every treatment was replicated thrice in a randomized block design. Observations were made on germination rate, root and shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling, % phytotoxicity of root and shoot, sugar, and chlorophyll content in the leaves of both treated and control plants. Steady increase in Cr (VI) fixation under different concentration under various treatments significantly leads to inhibition of seed germination and other development parameters. Percentage of phytotoxicity demonstrated an increasing pattern with continuous increment in Cr VI concentrations for the entire Amaranthus tricolor L. and Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars. Most extreme restraints of root development were recorded. Endeavors are being made in various research centers to build novel plants utilizing hereditary control innovations that may have a more noteworthy resistance o the nearness of heavy metals. The consequence of the present investigation may help in understanding the components included and their conceivable use in phytoremediation. The germination and seedling growth responses of Amaranthus (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) were assessed in varying concentrations of K2Cr2O7. Germination of both green Amaranthus and Sesame was significantly affected by the increasing K2Cr2O7 concentrations. Root length and shoot length of both the green Amaranthus and Sesame were inhibited by the high K2Cr2O7 concentrations as compared to those containing low K2Cr2O7concentrations and control treatment.