Open Access Short Research Article

Investigating the Morphophysiological Indices of Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) in Competition with Corn (Zea mays L.)

Mahdi Aghabeigi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/38380

In order to study the morphophysiological characteristics of lambsquarters in competition with corn, an experiment was conducted in Varamin, Iran in 2012. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and factorial arrangement. The experimental treatments included the relative time of lambsquarters emergence (same time emergence with corn, in the 2-3 stage corn and 5-6 leaves of corn), and total  lambsquarters density (5, 10 and 15 plants per meter row equals 6.6, 13.3 and 20 Plant per square meter). Also, with the same treatment combination, lambsquarters were cultivated in pure and non-competitive conditions. The results showed that the delay in the time of lambsquarters emergence reduced its competitive ability against corn. Investigating the effects of competition on height, leaf area and final dry matter accumulation, it was found that the height difference did not differ significantly between the competition and monoculture (with the exception of emergence in 5-6 leaves, which showed a decrease of 24%) and in contrast to other traits, there was a significant difference between them and the highest level of leaf and dry matter was observed at the same time. So that emergence in 5-6 leaves of corn, reduced 63 and 60 percent of maximum leaf area and total dry matter in competition and 40 and 51 percent in monoculture mode compared with same time emerging with lambsquarters.

Open Access Short communication

Effects of Storage Conditions and Duration on Seed Germination of Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus)

Olosunde Adam, Aladele Sunday, Olubiyi Mayowa, Afolayan Gloria, Olajire Olabisi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/38518

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is an important crop grown mainly for its pods which are used either fresh, canned or dried and ground as powder. It is a good source of vitamins A, B, C and also rich in protein, minerals and iodine. However, conservation of okra seed for long term use especially for the purpose of crop improvement in Nigeria is still a big challenge. The objective of this study was to carry out preliminary investigation on the influence of storage conditions and duration on seed germination of okra seeds. Freshly harvested and processed seeds of three okra accessions (NGAE-96-011, NGAE-96-0060 and NGAE-96-0062-1) were packaged inside well-covered plastic containers and kept in three storage environments namely, ambient (control), short and medium term chambers. The laboratory experiment was conducted at the seed testing laboratory of NACGRAB between February and November 2015. One hundred seeds of each accession were subjected to germination test in three replicates at three-month intervals. The experiment was arranged in 3 x 3 x 3 factorial using completely randomized design (CRD). The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that effects of accession and storage duration as well as interactive effect of storage conditions by duration were significant (P<.01) on germination of okra seeds indicating that there were differential germination response of okra seeds to accession and storage duration. Moreover, the significant interactive effect of storage conditions and duration indicates that duration of okra seed in storage and storage conditions should be given prime consideration in determining germination status of okra seeds in order to avoid wrong conclusion on okra seeds germination potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variability of Selected Physico-chemical Properties of Soil Overlying Different Parent Materials in Odukpani, Cross River State

S. M. Afu, I. A. Isong, E. E. Aki

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/38317

This research investigated variability among soil properties in soils overlying shale, sandstones and limestone parent materials. The result showed variability in percent sand, silt and clay content in both surface and subsurface soil. The texture ranged from clay, loam, sandy clay to sandy clay loam. The soils were acidic except those developed on limestone. The organic carbon contents of the soils were low to moderate. Total nitrogen was low while available phosphorus was high. In all parent materials exchangeable bases consistently decreased with geomorphic surfaces and were in the magnitude of Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Na+. The result of the study also showed that landscape position (crest, middle slope and valley bottom) significantly influences sand and clay content, available phosphorus, and exchangeable acidity (H+) and the crest had the highest sand content, middle slope had the highest clay content, valley bottom had highest available phosphorus while the crest and valley bottom had the highest exchangeable H+. Also, parent materials (shale, sandstone and limestone) significantly influences sand and clay content, pH, organic carbon, available phosphorus, exchangeable Ca and Mg, exchangeable acidity (Al and H), ECEC and BS. pH and base saturation within and across the three parent materials consistently had low variability class (CV< 15%) whereas soil texture particularly percent silt and Al+++ consistently had high variability class (CV >35%). This result suggest that uniform management practices for soil properties with high variability alongside with those having low variability in Odukpani soils can leads to failure of crops to response to such management practices and yield loses are inevitable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Soil Edaphic Components on Incidence of Tomato Collar Rot Disease Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.)

Asish Mahato, Mohan Kumar Biswas, Suman Patra

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/37614

The collar rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii is most destructive soil borne disease of tomato. The soil edaphic components i.e., available soil Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P), Potassium (K), soil organic carbon, soil pH, soil moisture, soil texture and resting structures of plant pathogens etc. were reported to influence the disease incidence. Hence to know the relation between these components to disease development, experiments were carried out at Department of Plant Protection, Palli-Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati during 2014-15. Soil samples were collected from tomato growing areas of red and lateritic zone of West Bengal and thereafter different soil edaphic components viz. available soil Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, organic carbon, soil pH, number of sclerotia of S. rolfsii was determined following the standard techniques. The disease incidence was also recorded during soil sample collection. Appropriate statistical tool was employed for correlation and regression analysis. Also to know the effect of soil texture, soil pH and soil moisture on the development of disease pot experiments were conducted during 2014-15. The soil analysis revealed that the available quantity of different soil edaphic components i.e., Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P), Potassium (K), Organic carbon (OC), soil pH and No. of Sclerotia / gm of soil were ranged from 185.0 -488.0 kg/ha, 17.0-63 kg/ ha,122.0-446.0 kg/ ha, 0.33-0.98%, 5.1-6.6 and 0.2-1.2 respectively and disease incidence was ranged from 7.36% to 21.06% in red and lateritic zone of West Bengal. Disease incidence showed significantly positive correlation with available soil Nitrogen, Organic carbon, Soil pH and Sclerotia population of soil but negatively correlated with available soil Potassium (K) and Phosphorous (P). Sandy clay loam soil, 6.5-7.0 pH level, and 15% moisture level of soil found highly favorable for collar rot disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rhizosphere and Rhizoplane Mycoflora of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) from Saudi Arabia

Syeda Fatima Manzelat

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/38315

This is the first comparative study of the rhizosphere and rhizoplane mycoflora of Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) from three different regions of Saudi Arabia. Samples of roots and  rhizosphere soil from the date palm were collected from Jeddah, Jizan and Riyadh. A total number of eighteen samples were collected. Three samples from each region were collected and screened for mycoflora during the month of May 2017. The mycoflora was aseptically cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar plates and Czapek Dox agar plates. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of mycoflora was carried out from the fungal cultures on the petri plates. Slides were identified by microscopic and macroscopic morphological characteristics. A total of 48 fungal isolates represented by 11 fungal genera were isolated from the samples belonging to the three classes of fungi i.e. Oomycotina, Zygomycotina and Ascomycotina. The rhizoplane and rhizosphere mycoflora was represented by Aspergillus Chaetomium, Cunnighamella, Fusarium, Mucor, Nigrospora, Oidiodendron, Penicillium, Phytopthora, Rhizopus and Syncephalastrum. The most predominant genera were Aspergillus followed by Rhizopus. The rhizoplane mycoflora was lesser than the rhizosphere mycoflora in Jeddah and Jizan. Riyadh recorded equal number of both rhizoplane and rhizosphere mycoflora. The fungal genera isolated are soil borne saprophytic, antagonistic or phytopathogenic fungi of the date palm. The information on the phytopathogenic mycoflora is important to plant pathologists and date growers in these regions so that they can take up necessary phytosanitary measures to prevent damage to the date crop. This study can help in controlling the diseases, damage and economic losses to the date crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mono and Co-inoculation Response of Rhizobium and PGPR on Soybean in Central India

F. C. Amule, A. K. Rawat, D. L. N. Rao

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36997

Nitrogen fixation by legume-rhizobium symbiosis is important to agricultural productivity and is therefore of great economic interest. The effect of mono and co-inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR was investigated in two consecutive years during 2010-11 and 2011-12 in Vertisols of central India on soybean. Soybean crop was grown during rainy season of 2010-11 with mono-inoculation of Rhizobium (10 isolates) and PGPR (15 isolates). During 2011-12 previously screened 3 taxonomically confirmed isolates each of Rhizobium and PGPR as mono-inoculation and their combinations as co-inoculation along with fertilized uninoculated control (FUI) and unfertilized uninoculated control (UFUI) were also evaluated. The treatments were laid out in RCBD with three and four replications respectively. The effects of mono-inoculation and co-inoculation on soybean were observed on soil properties, nodulation, yield, total nutrients (NPK) uptake by crop, harvest index, nitrogen harvest index and additional BNF (biological nitrogen fixation). Seed inoculation either mono or co-inoculation improved the status of post harvest soil nutrients as compared to initial status, UFUI and FUI. During 2010-11 the total soil N in post harvest soil sample was maximum with one of the rhizobial isolates (441 mg kg-1 soil) while in FUI it was 402 mg kg-1 soil while with PGPR isolates it was 439 and 401 mg kg-1 soil respectively. Next year it was 432 and 430 mg kg-1 soil respectively in co-inoculation and FUI.

Mono-inoculation promoted germination, nodulation, seed yield, harvest index, nitrogen harvest index and additional BNF significantly over FUI but co-inoculation was found more synergistic. Significantly correlations were observed between oven dried weight of nodules with straw and seed yields and total N uptake by crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield and Yield Components of Winter Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Genotypes Influenced by Plant Spacings

E. Iyarin Thanka Mahil, Subbalakshmi Lokanadhan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/38591

Field experiment was conducted to study the influence of plant spacings on the seed cotton yield and yield components in cotton during winter 2016–2017 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design and replicated thrice with two cotton genotypes Co 14 and TCH 1819 and seven spacings 90 cm x 45 cm, 60 cm x 30 cm, 90 cm x 45-10 cm, 60 cm x 30-10 cm, 80 cm x 10 cm, 90 cm x 10 cm and 100 cm x 10 cm. Observations on yield attributes and seed cotton yield were recorded. Yield components including number of sympodial branches/plant (14), number of flowers/plant (20), number of bolls/plant (13),  single boll weight (3.13 g) and seed cotton yield (2734 kg/ha) were higher in the Co 14 variety when compared to TCH 1819. In the present study, Co 14 with 80 cm x 10 cm spacing gave high seed cotton yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Peasant Farmers Cultivation Practices on Chemical Properties of a Sandy Soil in Sokoto, Nigeria

M. M. Sauwa, I. B. Buji, A. L. Ngala, S. A. Lukman, D. Wadatau, B. S. Haliru, S. Abdulkadir

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/27306

Maximization of agricultural crop production could require continuous cultivation likewise soil protection. Thus, an experiment was carried out in local farmers’ farm lands in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria to investigate the effect of different cultivation practices on chemical properties of a sandy soil. The experiment consisted of two treatments (cultivated and uncultivated lands) replicated 5 times. Measurement of chemical properties of the soil such as organic matter (OM), organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were made at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm soil depths. Data obtained was analyzed using two-sample t-test. The results revealed that, farmers cultivation practices has no significant (p> 0.05) effect on chemical properties of the soil. However, there was a slight deterioration in chemical quality of the soil (at 0-15 cm soil depth) due to long-term continuous cultivation. The study further revealed that, cultivation encourages redistribution of OM contents of the soil within measured depths. From the results, it can be concluded that, the farmers cultivation practice (1 camel traction, 1-2 hand hoe cultivation plus camel or cow dung manure application per year) is still normal soil tillage that is capable of maintaining the soil’s chemical quality for agricultural crop production over longer (20 -25 years) period of cultivation. It is however recommended that, periodic checking (5-10 years) of chemical fertility status of the soil (farms) should be encouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of Dual-Purpose Organic Amendment for Enhancing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum M.) Performance and Mitigating Seedling Damage by Mole Cricket (Gryllotalpa africana spp.)

Christopher Ngosong, Clovis B. Tanyi, Cyril A. Njume, Priscilla M. Mfombep, Justin N. Okolle, Thomas E. Njock, Raymond N. Nkongho, Aaron S. Tening

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/38666

Aim: Efficacy of locally produced dual-purpose organic amendment for improving tomato protection and yield was compared with synthetic pesticides and fertilizers.

Methodology: The experiment was setup as randomized complete block with three treatments (control, inorganic and organic) each replicated four times.

Results: Treatment was negatively correlated with tomato seedling damage by mole cricket (r = −0.86), with 100% efficacy in the organic treatment compared to 90% in the inorganic treatment and 80% in the control (P = .05). Treatment was negatively correlated with tomato blight (r = −0.57), with 100% blight infestation in the control compared to 8% in the inorganic treatment and 25% in the organic treatment (P = .05). No tomato plant was damaged in the organic treatment, compared to 12.5% in the inorganic treatment and 29.1% in the control (P = .001). The total plant damage was negatively correlated with treatment (r = −0.97) and positively correlated with seedling damage (r = 0.90), blight (= 0.57) and wilt (= 0.97). The highest tomato yield occurred in the inorganic treatment with 43.9 t ha-1 and organic treatment with 38.1 t ha-1, which differed (P = .05) significantly from the control with 1.5 t ha-1. Tomato yield correlated positively with the number of leaves per plant (r = 0.66), but was negatively correlated with blight (= −0.70) and wilt (r = −0.60). The highest number of leaves per plant was recorded in inorganic treatment with 30 and organic treatment with 28, compared to 15 in the control (P = .05). Treatment was positively correlated with number leaves per plant (r = 0.63), while the number of leaves was negatively correlated with blight incidence (= −0.92).

Conclusion: The dual-purpose organic amendment is an effective sustainable alternative for improving tomato protection and yield compared to inorganic inputs.