Open Access Original Research Article

The Phenology of Flowering and Ripening of Almond Cultivars Nonpareil, Texas, Ferraduel and Genco in Herzegovina

Adnan x Adnan Oručević, Jasmina Aliman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/39091

Aims: The area of sub-Mediterranean Herzegovina, including the area of Mostar, is favourable for growing of almonds. However, this advantage has not been sufficiently exploited so far. A wide selection of almond varieties is available, so it is a challenge to select the best variety for successful cultivation in the agroecological conditions of Herzegovina, and to justify the economic investment. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate their phenological characteristics in order to determine their adaptability to environmental conditions of Herzegovina. This paper describes the dynamics of flowering and fruit ripening of four varieties of almonds in climatic conditions of Herzegovina, in Mostar. The goal of this paper is to establish the dynamics of flowering in the Mostar area of these cultivar almond types: Nonpareil, Texas, Ferradueland Genco.

Study Design: For the purposes of research work, there was an experiment set up by the method of random pool arrangement, with three trees of each cultivar.

Place and Duration of Study: The experimental part of this work was carried out in a part of private property located near the village of Gnojnice, Municipality of Mostar. The survey was conducted on two occasions, more precisely in two vegetations, during 2013 and 2014.

Methodology: The dynamics of flowering were recorded for each cultivar through three phenophases:

   •  Beginning of flowering - the date when 10% of tree flowers are opened;
   •  Full flowering - the date when 90% of tree flowers are opened;
   •  End of flowering - the date when more than 90% of leaf petal fell of the tree.

Results: The research results showed a big correlation between flowering phenophases flow and meteorological conditions in some research years. In 2014, the flowerings began 14 to 18 days earlier (depending on variety) in comparison to 2013. The earliest flowering was recorded for the variety “Texas”, and the latest was recorded for varieties of Ferraduel and Genco.

Conclusion: Flowering duration was pretty equal for all the varieties (from 17 to 21,3 days), while the shortest duration was recorded for the varieties Genco (17) and Ferraduel (17,3) in 2013. All the varieties had earlier fruit ripening in 2014 in comparison to 2013. Fruits of Texas variety had the latest ripening, while the varieties Nonpareil, Ferraduel and Genco ripened at the same time. All the monitored varieties showed an extreme adaptability to agro-ecological conditions of Herzegovina and may be recommended for commercial cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Cheese Whey on Some Chemical and Physical Properties of Calcareous and Clay Soils

Emad F. Aboukila, Elsayed A. A. Abdelraouf, Ibrahem Gomma

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/39082

Cheese whey is the main by-products generated by the cheese industry. It is acidic and rich in organic matter and nutrients which makes it ideal candidate to use as soil amendment. Incubation experiment was conducted to assess the potential of using cheese whey to increase soil fertility in calcareous and clay soils. Amendments were six levels of mozzarella cheese whey; 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% (oven dry weight basis). Cheese whey were applied to the tested soils, placed in pots and incubated aerobically under field capacity and field conditions for three months. After incubation, selected soil chemical parameters were measured, the cumulative water evaporation was measured as well. The electrical conductivity (EC) of the whey treated soil increased slightly in comparison to the initial EC in both soils. While, soil OM, available N, available P, and available K were significantly increased by all application rates compared to the control in both tested soils. The increase range was from 84 to 300% for OM; 10 to 136% for N; 40 to 155% for P; and 71 to 157% for K in clay soil. However, in calcareous soil, the range was from 17 to 177% for OM; 9 to 93% for N; 120 to 584% for P; and 175 to 550% for K. The soil pH decreased with increasing levels of cheese whey from 8.10 to 7.54 in clay soil and from 8.21 to 7.87 in calcareous soil. Suggesting that cheese whey was effective at adding OM, N, P, and K to soils while decreasing the soil’s pH. The cumulative evaporation increased with time in both soils. The application of whey to the clay soils reduced the cumulative evaporation but it did not exhibit a trend in the calcareous soils. The use of cheese whey therefore in agricultural production provides an economic and environmentally friendly method of disposal, while improving soil fertility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Establishment of Coffee Seedlings as Influenced by Planting Pit Size and Rock Phosphate along with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Inoculations

D. S. Mukharib, Rudragouda ., C. Babou, M. Govindappa, Ramya ., Nagaraj Gokavi, Kishore Mote, A. N. Manjunath, Y. Raghuramulu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/38955

A multi-location field experiment was initiated to boost the growth of supply planting of young coffee seedlings in the main field during the year 2015-16 at Central Coffee Research Institute (CCRI) and its substations. Observations were recorded on growth parameters, root characters and percent mortality of the seedlings and statistical data were analysed with WASP Web Based Agricultural Statistics Software Package. Results indicated that all the treatments significantly improved plant growth and showed the better establishment of coffee seedlings in the field. The treatment with increased square pit size of 45 x 45 x 45 cm3, addition of rock phosphate at 30g, supplementation of 25 gm each of Azospirillum, PSB and VAM fungi enriched with 2 kg of compost and 10 gm of phorate per pit showed significantly increased tap root length (127%), root volume (113.82%), fresh root biomass (106.89%), dry root biomass (69.42%), secondary roots (72.59%), primaries branches (51.0%) and length of primaries (39%). The treatment with pit size of 30 x 30 x 45 cm3 with addition of 30 g rock phosphate and 2 kg compost per pit also showed significant increase in tap root length (96.43%), root volume (92.53%), fresh root biomass (78.76%), dry root biomass (89.81%), secondary roots (55.07%), primaries branches (37.82%) and length of primaries (34.24%) compared to control. Hence, the initial results of the experiment indicated that planting of young coffee seedlings with increased square pit size along with P nutrition and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) application could be beneficial in achieving the better establishment of seedlings in the main field under changing climatic conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Integrated Nutrient Management on Red Leaf Index of Cotton and Incidence of Insect Pest and Disease in Cotton and Soybean Intercropping System

Amit M. Pujar, V. V. Angadi, Shamarao Jahagirdar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/38887

A field experiment was conducted at All India Coordinated Research Project on Soybean, Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the integrated nutrient management practices on red leaf index, insect pests and diseases in cotton and soybean intercropping system in 1:2 row proportion during kharif 2015. The study was undertaken to evaluate the sources of nutrients to red leaf index and incidence of insect pests and diseases. The field experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with three replications and twenty treatments. Treatment comprised of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients used in different combinations. Soybean introduced as intercrop in cotton with 40 x 10 cm spacing for soybean and 120 x 60 cm for cotton. There were no visual symptoms of leaf reddening at October 1st, and lowest red leaf index was observed in treatment receiving 100% RDF (recommended dose of fertiliser) for cotton and soybean + Vermicompost 1.25 t ha-1 + Gliricidia 2.5 t ha-1. At 40 DAS, lower incidence of Spodoptera larvae was observed in treatment receiving 100% RDF for cotton and soybean + Gliricidia 2.5 t ha-1 + Pongamia 2.5 t ha-1, 100% RDF for cotton and soybean + Vermicompost 1.25 t ha-1 + Gliricidia 2.5 t ha-1 and  100% RDF for cotton and soybean + Vermicompost 1.25 t ha-1 + Pongamia 2.5 t ha-1. At 85 DAS, lowest pod borer incidence was observed in treatment receiving 100% RDF for cotton and soybean + Vermicompost 1.25 t ha-1 + Pongamia 2.5 t ha-1compared to other treatments. Lower percent disease incidence of angular leaf spot of cotton was observed in 100% RDF for cotton and soybean + Vermicompost 1.25 t ha-1 + Pongamia 2.5 t ha-1 than other treatments. At 65 DAS lower percent disease incidence of Alternaria leaf blight of cotton was observed in treatment receiving 100% RDF for cotton and soybean + Gliricidia 2.5 t ha-1 + Pongamia 2.5 t ha-1, 100% RDF for cotton and soybean + vermicompost 1.25 t ha-1 + Gliricidia 2.5 t ha-1 and 100% RDF for cotton and soybean + vermicompost 1.25 t h-1 + Pongamia 2.5 t ha-1 compared to other treatments. It could be concluded that application of 100% RDF for cotton and soybean + Gliricidia 2.5 t ha-1 + Pongamia t ha-1 in cotton and soybean intercropping systems reduced the red leaf index and provide resistance to crop against insect pests and disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

First Report of Die-back Disease of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Induced by Fusarium equiseti (Mart) Sacc in Nigeria

W. P. Dauda, S. E. L. Alao, A. B. Zarafi, O. Alabi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/38339

In October 2015 and 2016, onion plants of Barke Aliero exhibiting characteristic symptoms of dried leaves beginning from the tip, abnormal protrusion, root discoloration and curling of the stalk from tip was observed in Kebbi State, Nigeria. In both cases, disease was very severe on seedlings, and disease incidence was 50% or more in most farmer’s fields. Diseased tissue was cut from advancing margin after sterilization and placed in agar plates. The Fusarium sp. isolated routinely from diseased tissue was identified at International Mycological Institute (IMI) Egham, London as Fusarium equiseti (Mart).Microscopic examinations showed the presence of septate (5-7) marcroconidia with tapered apical shape and aseptate microconidia. Pathogenicity test using Fusarium equiseti (IMI No. 604243) isolated from the roots and leaves of diseased plants showed typical symptoms. Three inoculation methods used confirmed multiple soil borne inoculum transmission after the Koch postulate.