Open Access Original Research Article

Symbiotic Effectiveness of Indigenous Rhizobial Strains on Biological Nitrogen Fixation of Lablab (Lablab purpureus) in the Derived Savanna of Nigeria

Oyepero Abisoye Ojo, Michael Olajire Dare

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/39373

Field and pot experiments were conducted in the derived savanna of Nigeria to determine the effectiveness of three indigenous rhizobial strains on the Nitrogen (N) fixation of lablab (Lablab purpureus). Soils were collected from two locations, Idi Ayunre and University of Ibadan Teaching and Research Farm (UITRF) for pot experiment in a completely randomised design with a factorial arrangement of 2 × 2 × 6. The treatments were soil type (Idi Ayunre and UITRF soils), sterilisation (partially-sterile and unsterile) and six rhizobial strains inoculation {three indigenous strains, IDC8, OISa-6e and TRC; two exotic strains, IRj 2180A and R25B; and the control (resident native rhizobial strains)}. A field experiment was further conducted at UITRF using five rhizobial inoculations, the three indigenous strains, a combination of R25B and IRj 2180A (R25B+IRj 2180A) and control. Data were collected on biomass dry weight, a number of nodules, nodule dry weight, N derived from the atmosphere (Ndfa), N and P uptake and total N fixed. No significant difference was observed in the Ndfa (%) among the strains. However, indigenous strains IDC8 and OISa-6e performed better than the resident native rhizobia regarding N fixed, dry biomass weight, nodule formation and N uptake. N fixed by lablab inoculated with IDC8 was more than 200% higher than that fixed by resident native bacteria. Lablab N fixation efficiency can be improved using effective indigenous rhizobial strains. Further screening of indigenous strain for N fixation efficiency is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Legume Cover Crops on Orange (Citrus sinensis) Fruit Weight and Brix

J. M. Mulinge, H. M. Saha, L. G. Mounde, L. A. Wasilwa

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/39298

Recent reports show that orange yield and fruit quality is on the decline in Kenya’s coastal lowlands hence need for an efficient and sustainable production system. A field study was conducted in Vitengeni, Ganda and Matuga locations within the coastal lowland of Kenya from May 2012 to April 2015 to evaluate the effect of three legume cover crops on orange fruit weight and brix. The treatments included mucuna (Mucuna pruriens), dolichos (Lablab purpureus), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cover crops and fallow of natural vegetation as the control. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) and each treatment replicated four times within the four blocks. Data collected were orange fruit weight, orange fruit brix, weather, soil texture and composition. The data was subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the procedures of R statistical analysis software version 3.3.2 (R Core team, 2015). Mean separation was done using the least significant difference (LSD) at 5% level of significance. The results from the study showed that mucuna, dolichos and cowpea significantly (P=.05) increased fruit weight and brix. There was interaction effect between treatments and sites. Mucuna increased orange fruit weight by 12.4%, 10.5% and 7.6% for Ganda, Matuga and Vitengeni respectively. Orange fruit weight increased by 8.8%, 7.8% and 7.2% for Ganda, Matuga and Vitengeni respectively due to dolichos and 6.0% for Ganda due to cowpea. Orange fruit brix increased by 5.8%, 5.1% and 4.2% for Vitengeni, Matuga and Ganda respectively due to mucuna. Cowpea increased orange fruit brix by 4.6%, 3.8% and 3.2% for Vitengeni, Matuga and Ganda respectively. Orange fruit brix increased by 3.3% and 3.1% for Vitengeni and Matuga respectively due to dolichos. From the outcome of this study, mucuna  is recommended for use in orange tree orchards as it is useful in improving yield and fruit quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Phosphorus Management on Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Green Gram (Vigna radiata L.) under South Gujarat Condition

Asmatullah Durani, Sonal Tripathi, L. J. Desai, Hashmatullah Durrani, Khuwaja Safiullah, Aminullah Yousafzai

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/39464

A field experiment was conducted at the College Farm, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari to study the “Effect of phosphorus management on quality of rabi maize (Zea mays L.) and summer Green gram (Vigna radiata L.) under south Gujarat condition with an objective to assess the residual effect of rock phosphate (RP) and single super phosphate (SSP) along with Vascular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) applied to rabi maize crops with four teen different phosphorus management treatment rock phosphate (RP), single super phosphate and Vascular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) two levels I,e. 100% RDF (recommended dose of fertilize ) and  75% RDF  in summer green gram. Application of 75  percent phosphorus as enriched rock phosphate along with VAM gave significantly higher grain yield, straw yield protein content and protein yield over rest of the treatments under study during the individual years as well as in the pool. The same trend was observed in Green gram seed and stover, from the results, it can be concluded that the application 75 percent rock phosphate along with VAM to rabi maize and improvements in quality of both crops of sequence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Variability of Soil Organic Carbon and Available Nutrients under Different Topography and Land Uses in Meghalaya, India

David Longpani Tao, Naorem Janaki Singh, Chandan Goswami

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/39615

Nutrient loss from the soil is influenced by topography and crop uptake. Knowledge of spatial variability of soil properties can help in site-specific nutrient management. It was attempted to study the effect of topography and land uses on spatial variability of soil organic carbon (SOC), available nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P) and available potassium (K) in acidic soils of the research farm of National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resource having annual crop (ginger/turmeric) with 25% slope (NBPGR 1), buckwheat-pulse, maize-fallow, perennial medicinal plants with 9% slope (NBPGR 2), Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Krishi Vigyan Kendra farm having ginger/turmeric, maize-vegetable, pulse-vegetable with 9% slope (ICAR-KVK) and ICAR-Horticulture farm having guava/mandarin with 25% slope. The SOC content was in the order of guava (2.15%) > mandarin (2.06%) > ginger/turmeric at NBPGR 1(1.98%) > maize-vegetable (1.87%) > medicinal plants (1.81%) > buckwheat-pulse (1.78%) > maize-fallow (1.76%) = pulses-vegetable (1.76%) > ginger/turmeric at ICAR-KVK (1.56%). The N was higher in buckwheat-pulse (460.35 kg/ha) followed by guava (420.85 kg/ha), maize-fallow (409.92 kg/ha), ginger/turmeric of ICAR-KVK (404.50 kg/ha), medicinal plants (402.2 kg/ha), pulse-vegetable (377.46 kg/ha), mandarin (366.14 kg/ha), maize-vegetable (364.68 kg/ha) and ginger/turmeric of NBPGR 1 (348.06 kg/ha). The P was in the order of maize-vegetable (52.07 kg/ha) > pulse-vegetable (40.14 kg/ha1) > ginger/turmeric of ICAR-KVK (35.67 kg/ha) > buckwheat-pulses (22.23 kg/ha) > mandarin (21.06 kg/ha) > guava (20.83 kg/ha) > maize-fallow (16.58 kg/ha) > ginger/turmeric of NBPGR 1 (15.71 kg/ha) > medicinal plants (13.33 kg/ha). The K was observed higher in guava (422.80 kg/ha) followed by buckwheat-pulse (330.86 kg/ha), ginger/turmeric of NBPGR 1 (192.13 kg/ha) and maize-vegetable (181.73 kg/ha). The nugget/sill ratio of P had strong to moderate and SOC, N and K had moderate to weak spatial autocorrelation in NBPGR 1 and NBPGR 2. All the nutrients in ICAR-KVK farm were found to have weak spatial correlation. Most suitable interpolation technique for SOC and K was the Radial Basis Function (RBF), ordinary kriging for N and P and gaussian model for ICAR-KVK farm. In ICAR-Horticulture farm, the exponential and pentaspherical semivariogram model best described the SOC, N, K and P, respectively. The nugget/sill ratio of P and K showed moderate spatial dependence and this was weak for SOC and N.

Open Access Original Research Article

Residual Effect of Segregated and Unsegregated Urban Solid Waste Compost on Quality of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

Roohi ., H. C. Prakasha, Hari Mohan Meena

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/38330

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the residual effect of segregated and unsegregated urban solid waste compost on chlorophyll content, crude fiber and crude protein in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) during kharif-2016 in Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra, Bangalore (India). The results revealed that chlorophyll content, crude fiber and crude protein content were significantly improved by the application of 100% NPK + segregated urban solid waste compost (10 t ha-1) followed by 100% NPK + unsegregated urban solid waste compost (10 t ha-1) as compared to the treatment which includes only inorganics.