Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Packaging Materials on Seed Germination of Cowpea Varieties during Short Term Storage

Olosunde Adam, Awoyomi Oluwaseyi, Ajiboye Timothy, Babatunde Adetoro, Oluwadare Beloved

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/39516

A storage experiment was conducted at the seed testing laboratory of the National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (NACGRAB), Ibadan, Nigeria to examine the effect of packaging materials and storage periods on seed germination of cowpea. Seeds of two improved varieties of cowpea: Ife Brown and SAMPEA 12 were packed using three packaging materials viz. aluminium bags, plastic containers and envelopes. The seeds were dried to 12% moisture content with initial germination percentages of 90% and 88% respectively. The packaged seeds were stored under short-term storage conditions (temperature of 15.1 to 22.6°C and relative humidity of 26.9 to 50.7%) in Febrary 2015. The stored seed samples were drawn at three-month intervals starting from May 2015 to May 2016 which constituted five storage periods and evaluated for germination. The experiment was arranged in 2 x 3 x 5 factorial using completely randomised design (CRD) in three replications. The three factors were two varieties of cowpea, three packaging materials and five storage periods. The results of analysis of variance revealed that effect packaging materials were significant (P=.05) while an effect of storage period was highly significant (P<0.01) on seed germination of cowpea. The seeds packed in plastic containers recorded highest germination percentage of 75.9%. Germination values for seeds packed in envelopes (73.53%) and aluminium bags (70.20%) were not significantly different. Hence, plastic containers appeared to be the best for storage of cowpea seeds. Furthermore, increasing storage periods from 3, 6, 9 12 and 15 months resulted to declining in germination percentage with respective values of 91.4, 84.6, 74.4, 68.1 and 47.6%. Moreover, means for the interactive effect of variety by storage period revealed that cowpea varieties could retain viability values of 70% and above up to 12 months in storage at the present conditions used in the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Distribution of Some Soil Chemical and Biological Properties Beneath Native Shrubs (Guiera senegalensis) in Southern Semiarid Zone of Senegal

Mateugue Diack, Richard P. Dick, Modou Sène, Abdel K. Ndiaye

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/39484

This study investigated the effect of wind direction on spatial distribution of soil chemical and biochemical properties surrounding the indigenous shrub Guiera senegalensis in cropped fields of the semi-arid Sahel. Changes in some soil properties were measured at the center, beneath and outside the shrub canopy in relation to the prevailing wind direction. Results showed that the typical wind speed of 5 ms-1 coming from the north-northeast (NNE), had no significant effect on the directional spatial distribution of soil pH, organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and extractible phosphorus (EP); except for EP format the central south that was significantly higher than other directional locations (8.2 mg kg-1). In contrast, soil biochemical properties such as arylsulfatase (AS), ß-glucosidase (ß-G), soil respiration (SR), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) showed a more significant influence of wind direction, except SR. The highest concentrations of AS (11,8 µg g-1 soilh-1), ß-G (75.4 µg g-1 soilh-1), and MBC (116.1 mg kg-1) soil were found at the center, at 1R, mainly in the north-southern direction. Results contribute providing a basis for developing sustainable agriculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Soil Properties and Production of Cucumis sativus Irrigated with Treated Wastewater in Gaza Strip

Mohamed Jamal Safi, Maged Mohamed Yassin, Jamal Mohamed Safi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/39386

This research aimed to evaluate the impact of treated wastewater (TWW) irrigation on soil properties and production of cucumber. The field experiment was set up in the North zone of the Gaza Strip in the season period from April to July 2015. The Cucumber was planted in a design of one block with randomised treatments plots scattered within. The experiment comprised six treatments: four treatments were above surface drip irrigated; two treatments irrigated with potable water (PW) and two treatments irrigated with TWW, with and without plastic ground cover. The remaining two treatments were sub-surface drip irrigated with TWW, also with and without the cover at a depth of 20 cm below ground. Each treatment was replicated in 5 plots. Samples of PW, TWW and soil were analysed. The weight of harvested cucumber and the plant biomass were determined, SPSS analysed data. Both biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of TWW were higher than the acceptable World Health Organization (WHO) limit.The pH, total alkalinity, phosphorus and potassium levels were significantly increased in TWW compared to PW. Conversely, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved salts (TDS), nitrate, sulfur, chloride, sodium, calcium, magnesium and total hardness were significantly decreased in TWW. However, EC and TDS of both PW and TWW were higher than the WHO permissible limit. Heavy metals were below the detected limit. Total and faecal coliforms in TWW exceeds that of the WHO standards. Irrigation with PW and TWW increased soil EC, TDS, nitrate, sulfur, chloride, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium, particularly with TWW. The weight of harvested cucumber and the plant biomass were higher in plots irrigated with TWW than those irrigated with PW. In conclusion, TWW is a promising candidate to substitute PW irrigation for crops in Gaza Strip in having to low a level of heavy metals and proven to enhance soil fertility and cucumber productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Different dose of Plant Nutrient in Terms of Growth, Quality, Yield and Economics of Maize (Zea mays L.)

Harender ., Samar Singh, Kavinder ., Kapil Malik, Naveen Rathi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/39441

Experiment was conducted to study the effect of different doses of plant nutrients on growth, yield and economics of Maize (Zea mays L.), at Regional Research Station, Karnal during Kharif 2015 consisting of 12 treatments combination viz., T1 - Control (no fertilizer), T2 - N (150 kg/ha), T3 - NP (150, 60 kg/ha), T4 - NPK (150, 60, 60 kg/ha), T5 - NPK + S (160, 60, 60, 40 kg/ha), T- NPK + Zn (150, 60, 60, 25 kg/ha), T7 - NPK (150, 60, 60 kg/ha) + Fe (foliar application of FeSO4 @ 1% twice i.e. 30 and 45 DAS), T8 - NPK (150, 60, 60 kg/ha) + Mn (foliar application of MnSO4 @ 0.5 % twice i.e. 30 and 45 days after sowing (DAS), T9 - NPK + S + Zn (150, 60, 60, 40, 25 kg/ha), T10 – NPK + S (150, 60, 60, 40, 25 kg/ha) + Zn + Fe (foliar application of MnSO@ 0.5 % twice i.e. 30 and 45 DAS), T11 - NPK + S + Zn (150, 60, 60, 40, 25 kg/ha) + Fe + Mn (foliar application of FeSO4@ 1% and MnSO@ 0.5% twice i.e. 30 and 45 DAS) and T12 - soil test based fertilizer application (150, 60, 40 kg/ha) laid out in randomized block design. The results revealed that application of recommended NPK with micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn) to compare alone application of recommended NPK(T4) have no significant effect on plant height and dry matter accumulation, cob yield, grain yield and straw yield of Protein content in grain was not significantly affected by different treatments. Maximum B:C ratio was obtained from T5[NPK + S (160, 60, 60, 40 kg/ha)] because of relatively highest grain (7340 kg/ha) and straw yield (10980 kg/ha) in comparison to cost.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mutagenic Effect of Carboxylic Acid on the Growth and Yield of Two Varieties of Pepper Grown in Mubi, Adamawa State

B. P. Mshelmbula, S. Jingi, G. F. Akomolafe, J. I. Okogbaa

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/35135

The effect of carboxylic acid on the growth and yield of two varieties of pepper grown in Mubi, Adamawa State was investigated in this study was investigated after treatment with carboxylic acid. Two different cultivars of pepper Capsicum annum (sweet and hot) were obtained from Mubi Main Market. Five different concentrations were prepared on weight basis, viz. 0.001%, 0.002%, 0.003%, 0.004% and 0.005 respectively. The control treatment used was distilled water. The seeds were subjected to varying concentrations of the five different carboxylic acid concentrations (0.001-0.005) for 6 hours. The treated seed were then washed in running tap water to remove excess chemicals from the seed. They were planted, Complete Randomized Design method was adopted with five replicates for each concentration was carried out; all cultural practices observed and data collected on stem height, stem girth, number of flowers, number of leaves, leave area etc. ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Results showed that increased in carboxylic acid concentration brought about increase in all agronomical characters in both sweet and hot pepper except in stem girth where there was no statistical difference. However, more generations need to raised and molecular analysis carried out to ascertain the effects at the molecular level of treatment.