Open Access Policy Article

Managing Land Use and Its Constrains in Developing Agriculture: A Policy Brief to Indonesia

Asmin .

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/39460

Land is a major factor to fulfill human needs by serving as the backbone of agricultural, industry, mining, public housing, and other human activities. Land use change is necessary and essential for economic development. Degraded land in Indonesia was 24.3 million ha in 2013, caused mainly by inappropriate land use. No soil and water conservation measures were applied in such areas to prevent severe erosion, sedimentation and degradation of water condition (quantity and quality) in the downstream area. Therefore, good land management practices are essential to sustain high agricultural productivity without degrading land and the associated natural resource bases and ecosystem services essential for sustaining land productivity. The aim of this review article is to recommend Indonesian government as a policy brief to address the issue of land use in Indonesia. It is intended also as a reference for researchers and policy makers working on land use issues in Indonesia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plant Density on Yield Components and Yield of Kabuli Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Varieties at Debre Zeit, Central Ethiopia

M. Shiferaw, T. Tamado, F. Asnake

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/19120

Variety- and location-specific plant density recommendation is one of the agronomic practices used to increase the production and productivity of chickpea. However, there is a blanket recommendation across locations and varieties of chickpea in Ethiopia. Hence, field experiment was carried out from September 4, 2012 to January 25, 2013 to determine the response of kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties to plant spacing at Debre-Zeit, Central Ethiopia. Factorial combinations of three kabuli chickpea varieties (Acos Dubie, Chefe and Ejeri), three inter-row spacing (20, 30 and 40 cm) and two intra-row spacing (10 and 15 cm) were laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. As inter and intra-row spacing increased, the number of pods plant-1 was significantly increased whereas biological and seed yield were significantly decreased. Similarly, the main effect of variety showed a significant difference on number of pods plant-1 and hundred seed weight. Moreover, the interaction of variety and inter-row spacing were significant on harvest index. The highest seed yield (2340.33 kg ha-1) was obtained at 20 cm inter-row spacing whereas 40 cm inter-row spacing gave the lowest (1619.16 kg ha-1). Similarly, 10 cm intra-row spacing had the higher (2081.65 kg ha-1) seed yield as compared to 15 cm intra-row spacing (1758.32 kg ha-1). This result showed that kabuli chickpea varieties can be planted at inter-row spacing of 20 cm and intra-row spacing of 10 cm in Debre-Zeit area to attain maximum yield instead of previously used plant density (33 plants m-2).

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Immortelle Seedlings According to the Principles of Organic Production

Zoran Jovović, Besim Salkić, Ana Velimirović, Predrag Vukićević, Ahmed Salkić

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/39592

This paper presents the study of the influence of 3 types of organic fertiliser of industrial origin (Chap liquid, Biofert and Guano) on the most important quality parameters of immortelle seedlings.

The study was performed under protected conditions through 3 repetitions, with 10 plastic pots in each one. In the experiment were included two control: one that was not fertilised and the other one where was applied the organo-mineral fertiliser Sapro elixir.

The largest influence on the increase of the average height of the seedlings had Guano - 32.1 cm and Sapro elixir - 31.5 cm, while the lowest seedlings were measured in the non-fertilized control - 25.5 cm.

Plants with the largest above ground mass were found in variants with Guano - 17.5 g, Biofert - 16.7 g and Chap liquid - 16.1 g, while the seedlings with the lowest above ground mass were measured in non-fertilized control - 11.7 g. The differences in the above-ground biomass of immortelle seedlings between non-fertilised controls and all studied organic fertilisersM were also statistically justified. The plants with the more significant root biomass were found on variants with the application of Chap liquid - 29.9 g and Biofert - 29 g, while the lowest values for this parameter were determined in non-fertilized control - 17.9 g. All studied variants of fertilisation showed a significant increase in root biomass compared to non-fertilized control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nitrate Leaching under Farmers’ Fertilizer and Irrigation Water Use in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

Dejene Abera, Kibebew Kibret, Sheleme Beyene, Fassil Kebede

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/39076

In conventional furrow irrigated agriculture, excess water often causes leaching of nitrate-nitrogen. This experiment was aimed at quantifying nitrate leaching under farmers’ fertilizer and irrigation water use practices. It involved factorial combination of four rates of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 92, 184, and 368 kg N ha-1) and two levels of irrigation (100% crop water requirement =1.00 CWR and farmers’ practice =1.25 CWR). It was conducted in onion (Allium cepa L.) planted drainage lysimeter at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center in 2015/16 cropping season. Nitrogen loss for the production season was determined from leachate collected every 10±3 days interval. Nitrogen uptake, dry matter (DM) accumulation, bulb yield, and bulb storability were measured. The result indicated low nitrate leaching for the season (< 22.46 kg NO3- ha-1) however the losses were three-fold higher in high fertilizer rates or high irrigation water level. Independent t-test showed no significant difference (P ≥ 0.05) between irrigation levels on total N uptake, DM accumulation, and marketable bulb yield. Significant differences (P<0.05) were recorded between any different sub groups of N fertilizer rates on total N uptake except between 92 and 184 kg N ha-1. The significant difference between 184 and 368 kg N ha-1 on N uptake was not reflected in the DM accumulation and marketable onion bulb yield indicating low N use efficiency. The result showed about 48.5 to 69.4% surplus N accumulation in soil due to use of high rates of N fertilizer. Higher storage loss was depicted for application of 184 and 368 kg N ha-1, and 1.25 CWR. Irrigating at 1.00 CWR and N fertilizer not exceeding about 184 kg N ha-1 can reduce the problem without yield reduction. However, further field study is suggested within soils that have been under irrigated vegetable production for the last many years to reach at comprehensive conclusion and management recommendations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Benefits of Rhizobial Inoculation and Phosphorus Application on Growth of Lucerne (Medicago-sativa) in Kenya

Mutuerandu C. Miriko, Nicholas K. Korir, Joseph P. Gweyi-Onyango

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/39789

Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of Phosphates on growth components of Lucerne during the long and short rain seasons of 2016-2017 at Kenyatta University farm in Kiambu County in Kenya. The experiments were laid out in split-plot arrangement in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. The treatment factors were: (i) Main plot factor – Lucerne, (ii) Sub-plot factor – inoculation and no inoculation and (iii) Sub-sub plot factor - different phosphorus forms, no phosphate, RP and TSP totalling to twelve treatment combinations which were replicated three times. Rows of 50cm apart were made, leaving 25 cm on the edge. The maximum number of branches (18) was recorded on plants under the TSP treatment, followed by RP (15) whereas the plants in the control had the lowest number of branches (11). Inoculation significantly reduced the number of nodules in Lucerne probably due to the high population of indigenous rhizobia already present in the soil which might have led to negative competition.